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Notes - Chapter 2

1. See Coriolan Suciu, Dictionar istoric al localitatilor din Transilvania [Historical Dictionary of Transylvanian Localities], (Bucharest: 1967); Ernst Wagner, Historisch-statistisches Ortsnamenbuch für Siebenbürgen, Studia Transylvanica 4, (Cologne: 1977), p. 30.

2. Wagner, Historisch-statistisches Ortsnamenbuch, p. 30.

3. The county was the largest unit of public administration in Hungary; in Romanian it is known as "judet" and in Hungarian "megye": or "vármegye".

4. Monitorul Oficial, no. 220, October 7, 1925.

5. Cosna/Kosna and Carlibaba Noua/Radnalajosfalva were transferred to Suceava County in Moldavia. Similar regroupings of parishes, some of them of a temporary nature, occurred later as well. Larger-scale transfers of territory to the Regat were barred by the high Carpathian Mountain chain.


6. See "Legea administrativa" ("Public Administration Law"), Monitorul Oficial, no. 187, August 14, 1938. It is characteristic of the spirit of the law that according to Article 58, only those with pure Romanian origins going back at least three generations could become royal governors.

7. See S. Fischer-Galati, ed., Romania, p. 32.

8. Maramures, Crisana, Banat, and Transylvania.

9. The parishes from Székler region, Ghimes Faget/Gyimesbükk, Bicazul Ardelean/Gyergyóbékás, Bicaz-Chei/Békás, and Poiana Sarata/Sósmezö, as well as the town and neighborhood of Orsova/Orsova, with approximately 515 square kilometers were attached to administrative centers of the Old Kingdom, to Neamt, respectively Mehedinti Counties.

10. Law No. 5, 1950, Buletinul Oficial, no. 77, September 8, 1950. This law established 28 regions, 177 districts (raions), 4,056 parishes, and 148 towns and cities in the area of post-World War II Romania.

11. Arad, Bacau, Barlad, Bucuresti, Constanta, Craiova, Galati, Hunedoara, Iasi, Cluj, Baia Mare, Oradea, Pitesti, Ploiesti, Suceava, Stalin (Brassó/Kronstadt), Timisoara, and the Hungarian Autonomous Region.

12. The regions of Arad and Barlad were abolished; at the same time the Hungarian Autonomous Region was changed to the Mures-Magyar Autonomous Region.

13. Buletinul Oficial, February 17, 1968; see also Judetele Romaniei Socialiste [The Counties of Socialist Romania], 2nd ed., (Bucharest: 1972).

14. For example, the town and surrounding area of Baia Mare/ Nagybánya, which had a preponderantly Hungarian population, were attached to and thereby almost doubled the area of Maramures County, which had a Romanian majority; Satu Mare/Szatmár and Salaj/Szilágy Counties where the Hungarians comprised almost half the population, were considerably decreased. The town of Schässburg/Sighisoara and its environs, which had a Saxon population, were attached to Mures County with its Romanian majority. One of the three Székler counties, Odorhei/Udvarhely was abolished and most of its territory attached to the former Ciuc/Csík County, from which it is separated by the Hargita Mountain chain; the new county thus formed has the name of Harghita; and finally the historical name of the Háromszék/Trei Scaune County was changed to Covasna/Kovászna.

15. Fagaras/Fogaras, Tarnava Mica/Kisküküllö, Tarnava Mare/Nagyküküllö, Somes/Szolnok Doboka, Turda/Torda-Aranyos, and Odorhei/ Udvarhely Counties.

16. With about 550,000 people more than the last two censuses had given. The differences between the official census data and the author's figures is clear from the texts given by the author.

17. Recensamantul populatiei si locuintelor din 15. martie 1966 [The Census of the Population and Dwellings of March 15, 1966], vol. I, Part I, Bucharest, 1969, pp. 153, 154, 158, 159.

18. Monica Barcan and Adalbert Millitz, Die deutsche Nationalität in Rumänien, (Bucharest: 1977), pp. 45-48.


19. The sources for the results of the 1920 compilation of demographic statistics: G. Martinovici and N. Istrati, Dictionarul Transilvaniei, Banatului si celorlalte tinuturi alipite [The Dictionary of Transylvania, the Banat, and the Other Annexed Regions], (Cluj: 1921). These data have been corrected on several occasions by tables published in the periodicals, Anuarul Statistic al Romaniei (Statistical Yearbook of Romania) and Buletinul Statistic al Romaniei (Statistical Bulletin of Romania). Right up to 1925 all the official Romanian statistical publications and lectures gave the demographic and mobility data of the one-time Hungarian territories under the heading "Transilvania."

20. See Recensamantul general al populatiei Romaniei din 29 decemvrie 1930 [The General Census of the Romanian Population of December 29, 1930], Sabin Manuila, ed., Bucharest, 1938, vol. II, pp. 1-180: neam, limba materna, religie (nationality, mother tongue, religion).

21. See V. Moldovan, "Le nouveau régime des cultes en Roumanie", Revue de Transylvanie, 1934, no. 8.

22. Between 1921 and 1930 some 42,000 Germans emigrated overseas from the Banat. See Nation und Staat, 13 (1939-1940).

23. See The 1941 Census, Budapest, 1947; conducted January 31, 1941.

24. See Recensamantul general al Romaniei din 6 aprilie 1941. Date sumare provizorii [The General Romanian Population Census of April 6, 1941. Preliminary Summary Data], Bucharest, 1944, vol. XIV, p. 300.

25. On the 1948 census see A. Golopentia and D.C. Georgescu, "Populatia Republicii Populare Romane la 25 ianuarie 1948. Rezultatele provizorii ale recensamantului" ["The Population of the Romanian People's Republic on January 25, 1948. The Preliminary Results of the Census, "] in Probleme Economice (Economic Problems), R. Manescu, ed., Bucharest, 1948, paper 2, pp. 28 ff.

26. Recensamantul populatiei din 21 februarie 1956. Volumul III. Structura populatiei dupa nationalitate si limba materna [The Population Census of February 21, 1956. The Structure of the Population in Accordance with Nationality and Mother Tongue], Bucharest, 1961, XVIII-XXI. The term "nationality," or "nationalitate" has been in use in Romania only since the 1956 census. In none of the censuses, however, has an attempt been made to show the ethnic communities -- the Hungarian, German, Russian, and other nationalities according to dialect, historical origin, religious denomination or other criteria -- as independent ethnic groups.

27. Republica Socialista Romania, Recensamantul populatiei si locuintelor din 15, martie 1966 [The Census of the Population and Dwellings of the Romanian Socialist Republic of March 15, 1966], vol. I, Part I, Bucharest, 1969, pp. 153, 154, 158. Directia Centrala de Statistica (Central Statistical Board).


28. See G.D. Satmarescu, "The Changing Demographic Structure of the Population of Transylvania," Eastern European Quarterly, vol. VIII, no. 4, January 1975, p. 432. It must be noted that in the 1920s, for example, 50,000 Hungarian workers immigrated to Bucharest and other towns and cities in the Regat. (See Sándor Turnowsky, "A társadalom" ["Society"], in Metamorphosis Transilvaniae, ed. István Györi Illés, (Cluj: 1937).

29. G.D. Satmarescu, "The Changing Demographic Structure," p. 426.

30. Ibid., p 436.

31. See S. Fischer-Galati, ed., Romania, pp. 43-44.

32. See G.D. Satmarescu, "The Changing Demographic Structure," p. 426.

33. Demographic Yearbook. Directiunea Centrala de Statistica, Bucharest, 1967, Table 13; and Statistical Yearbook, Bucharest, 1970.

34. G.D. Satmarescu, "The Changing Demographic Structure", p. 435.

35. See S. Fischer-Galati, ed., Romania, p 49.

36. References to this process are also to be found in some Romanian demographic studies. See I. Measnicov, "Migratia interna in perioada 19481956" ["Internal Migration in the 1948-1956 Period"], Revista de Statistica, 2 (1969), p 22; Measnicov-Birsan, "Unele aspecte ale migratiunii interne a populatiei in corelatia cu desvoltarea economica a tarii noastre" ["Certain Aspects of the Internal Migration of the Population in Connection with the Economic Development of Our Country"], Revista de Statistica, 2 (1963), p. 30; V. Nini, "Populatia Regiunii Banat la recensamintul din 15 martie 1966" ["The March 15, 1966 Census of the Population of the Banat Region"], Revista de Statistica, 6, (1967), p. 62.

37. The counties that significantly exceed the average are Brasov with 86.4 percent, Cluj with 65.8 percent, Mures with 45.1 percent, Sibiu with 52.4 percent, and Maramures with 42.2 percent.

38. See M. Stanescu and I.V. Stoichita, "Evolutia natalitatii in Romania in anii 1958-1964" ["The Development of the Birthrate in Romania in the Years 1958-1964"], Revista de Statistica, 8 (1966), p. 56.

39. E. Wagner, Historisch-statistisches Ortsnamenbuch, p 63.

40. The preliminary results were published by the Central Census Committee in the June 14, 1977 issue of Scinteia.

41. See Decree No. 770/1966 forbidding abortion and Decree No. 771/1966 which amended several clauses of the criminal code. The National Demographic Commission was established in March 1971 to promote a higher birthrate.

42. See also Trond Gilberg, Modernization in Rumania since World War II, (New York: 1975), pp. 213, 214, 217.; George Cioranescu and P.M.: Official Romanian Documentary Material on Minority Affairs, in Radio Free Europe Research, RAD Background Report/75 (Romania), April 19, 1978; Mihnea Berindei, "Les minoritiés nationales en Roumanie" in L'Alternative, Paris, vol. 1980, no. 3, pp. 39-40.

43. See J.F. Neigebauer, Beschreibung der Moldau und Walachei, (Leipzig: 1848), pp. 288-298.

44. See Virgil N. Madgearu, Zur industriellen Entwieklung Rumäniens, (Weida i. Th.: 1911), pp. 10, 14; Populatie si societate Studii de demografie istorica [Population and Society. Studies in Historical Demography], vol. I, S. Pascu, ed., (Cluj: 1972), p. 250.


45. Recensamantul general 1930, vols. V-VI.

46. See G. Retegan, "Evolutia populatiei urbane a Romaniei", ["The Development of the Urban Population of Romania"], Revista de Statistica, 7 (1965), p. 66, V. Trebici, Populatia Romaniei si cresterea economica [The Population of Romania and Economic Growth], (Bucharest: 1971), pp. 264-265.

47. See G.D. Satmarescu, "The Changing Demographic Structure," p. 425.; T. Gilberg, op cit., p. 209.

48. See Dokumentation der Vertreibung der Deutschen aus Ost-Mitteleuropa, p. 6E.

49. Sándor Vita, "Tallózás az 1930. évi román népszámlálás köteteiben", ["Gleaning in the Volumes of the Romanian Census of 1930"] in Hitel, Kolozsvár, vol. 2, 1936, pp. 34-35.

50. See N. Istrate, "Ardealul si Banatul in lumina cifrelor," ["Transylvania and the Banat in the Light of Numbers"] in Transilvania, Banatul, Crisana si Maramuresul 1918-1928, I-III, (Bucharest: 1929), p. 677.

51. G.D. Satmarescu, "The Changing Demographic Structure", p. 433.

52. An average of 17,000 people, for example, immigrated into Arad, Brasov, Cluj-Napoca, Oradea, and Timisoara during this period. See G.R. Serbu, "Caile de crestere numerica a populatiei oraselor mari ale R.P.R." ["The Paths of the Numerical Growth of the Population in the Larger Cities of the R.P.R."], Revista de Statistica, no. 5, 1961, pp. 26-34.

53. On the new Romanian settlers in the Transylvanian cities with predominate Hungarian or German population see Franz Ronneberger, "Sozialstruktur", in Rumänien. Südosteuropa Handbuch, Klaus-Detlev Grothusen, ed., (Göttingen: 1977), p. 415.

54. See "The Hungarian Minority Problem in Rumania," Bulletin of the International Commission of Jurists, no. 17, December 1963, Geneva, p. 74.

55. Through a State Council Decree of October 16, 1974 Cluj/Kolozsvár received an additional mark of Daco-Romanian continuity -- its name was changed to "Cluj-Napoca".

56. Sources: The 1910 Census, in Magyar Statisztikai Közlemények, Budapest, 1912; the population register of 1920, in Dictionarul Transilvaniei, Cluj, 1921; Recensamantul general 1930; Recensamantul general 1941; the results of the 1948 census in Probleme Economice, 1948, no. 2; Recensamantul populatiei 1956.

57. The population of Cluj-Napoca, for example, numbered 273,199 in 1979, and that of Timisoara 277,779; of Brasov 268,226; of Oradea 179,780; of Arad 174,411, and of Tirgu Mures 136,679. See Anuarul Statistic al RSR 1979. (Statistical Yearbook of the Romanian Socialist Republic 1979), Bucharest, pp. 50-53.


58. Enciclopedia Romaniei [The Encyclopaedia of Romania]. (Bucharest: 1937), vol. III, p. 42; Institutul Central de Statistica (Central Institute of Statistics), Populatia Republicii Populare Romane la 25 ianuarie 1948 [Population of the Romanian People's Republic, January 25, 1948], Bucharest, 1948, p. 12; Virgil Ioanid, "Factori al sistematizarii localitatilor urbane si rurale" ["The Factors for the Systematization of the Urban and Rural Settlements"], Lupta de Clasa, (Class Struggle), Bucharest, no. I, 1968, pp. 44-45.

59. Anuarul Statistic al Republicii Socialista Romania (The Annual Statistics of the Romanian Socialist Republic), 1975, pp. 5, 9.

60. See Mihai Dulea, "Romania -- tara socialista in curs de desvoltare" ["Romania -- a Socialist Country in the Process of Development"], Era Socialista (Socialist Age) (previously Lupta de Clasa), Bucharest, no. 3, 1973, pp. 21-24.

61. Petru Deica, "Structura populatiei pe clase si ramuri de activitate" [The Structure of the Population According to Classes and Occupation], in Monografia Geografica al RPR, Bucharest vol. II, pp. 43-53.

62. Recensamantul populatiei din 21 februarie 1956 [The Census of February 21, 1956], vol. III. The Structure of the Population, pp. 296, et. seq.; Recensamantul populatiei si locuintelor din 15 martie 1966, vol. I, p. 157.

63. A graphic representation of this demographic aging can be found in Breviarul Statistic al Republicii Socialiste Romania [The Statistical Summary of the Romanian Socialist Republic], (Bucharest: 1970).

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