|JOHN HUNYADI: Hungary in American History Textbooks|
Árpád, c.840-907?, chief of the MAGYARS. He led his people into Hungary in 895. The leaders of the Magyars and the Hungarian kings from St. STEPHEN I to Andrew III were of the house of Arpad (see HUNGARY).
Stephen, Saint, or Stephen I [Hung. István], 969-1038, duke (997-1001) and first king (1001-38) of Hungary, called the Apostle of Hungary. The Hungarian state may be said to date from his reign. He continued the Christianization policy of his father, Duke Geza, and put down revolts by pagan nobles, who also opposed his pro-German policy. Married to a German princess, Stephen favored German immigration and modeled his administration on that of the German kings. He divided Hungary into counties, governed by royal officials, to prevent abuses by the nobles. He was named by the pope apostolic king, a title his successors bore. His crown, sent to him by Pope Sylvester II, remained through the centuries the sacred symbol of Hungarian national existence. Although in the Roman calendar his feast is Sept. 2, it is Aug. 20, anniversary of the removal of his remains to a shrine, that is celebrated in Hungary as a great national holiday.
Ladislaus I, or Saint Ladislaus, Hung. László I, l040-1095, king of Hungary (1077-95). At the invitation of his sister, the widowed queen of Croatia, he invaded and conquered that country in 1091. He successfully fought the CUMANS, compelling those whose lives he spared to turn Christian and to settle in designated regions. He supported Pope Gregory VII against Emperor Henry IV, but rejected Gregory's suggestion that he swear fealty to the papacy. He modified the Hungarian criminal code and issued laws safeguarding private property. In Hungarian tradition he is the model of chivalry and valor. He secured the canonization of St. Stephen, and he was canonized himself in 1198. Feast: June 27.
Andrew II, d. 1235, king of Hungary (1205-35), son of Bela III. He expelled the Teutonic Knights from Transylvania, which he later settled with Saxon immigrants, to whom he gave (1224) the right to establish an autonomous administration. He continued his predecessor's policy of alienating crown lands to the magnates, and the lesser nobles forced him to issue a Golden Bull (1222), which strengthened the royal power and the liberties of the majority of the nation. Among the important provisions of this 'Magna Carta,' which was expanded in 1231, were that the diet should meet annually, that no noble should be executed except when regularly convicted, that no tax should be levied on the lands of the nobles or the Church, that charges against nobles for which the punishment was death or confiscation of goods should be heard by the king or at least reviewed by him, that foreigners should not receive offices without the consent of the diet, and that offices should not be perpetual. In the event that the king violated any of these provisions the nobles were to have the right of resistance. Andrew took part (1217) in the Fifth Crusade. He was the father of St. Elizabeth of Hungary and of Bela IV, his successor.
Bela IV, 1206-70, king of Hungary (1235-70). Son and successor of Andrew II. He set out to recover the crownlands his father had alienated. Confronted hy the menace of the Mongol invasion, he sent unheeded appeals to Gregory IX and Frederick II and was crushingly defeated at Mohi on the Sajo river in 1241. Returning after the withdrawal of the invaders, he repopulated the country by inviting foreign colonization and encouraged the building of castles. Bela defeated and killed the last Babenberg duke of Austria in 1240. He was defeated by OTTOCAR II of Bohemia in a war over Styria. His last years were disturbed by the rebellion of his son, later king STEPHEN V.
Ladislaus IV, Hung. László IV, (1272-90), king of Hungary (1272-90), son and successor of Stephen V. His mother was a Cuman, and Ladislaus became unpopular by adopting Cuman customs and surrounding himself with Cuman followers. During his reign Hungary fell into anarchy, the great landowners seizing power and the lower classes forming leagues for protection against them. There were several revolts against the king, who was finally slain by the Cumans. He died heirless; his successor, Andrew III (l290-130l), who issued from another branch of the Arpad dynasty, was succeeded as king of Hungary by King Wenceslaus III of Bohemia.
Louis I or Louis the Great, 1326 - 82, king of Hungary (1370 - 82) and of Poland (1370 - 82). He succeeded his father, Charles I, in Hungary, and his uncle, Casimir III, in Poland. He continued the internal policy of his father, favoring the Church and the commerce of the towns. In 1351 he confirmed the Golden Bull of ANDREW II, but to assure the continuance of a strong and wealthy military class he applied the system of ENTAIL to the estates of the nobles and made it mandatory for serfs to pay one ninth of their farm produce to their overlord. His finances were sound, and he was rarely forced to appeal to the diet for funds; as a result its meetings became less and less frequent. Louis tried, without success, to keep the Venetians from taking Zara (1346). Two expeditions to avenge the murder of his brother Andrew at the court of JOANNA I of Naples ended in a truce (1352) between the two monarchs. Louis fought two successful wars against Venice (1357 - 58, 1378 - 81), which ceded Dalmatia to him. The rulers of Serbia, Wallachia, Moldavia, and Bulgaria became his vassals. In Poland, where his campaign (1354) against the Tatars and the Lithuanians had made him popular, he was unable to prevent revolts and restlessness after his accession (1370). He had no male heir, but provided for his succession by marrying his eldest daughter, Mary, to SIGISMUND (later emperor). and a younger daughter, JADWIGA, to Jagiello (see LADISLAUS II) of Lithuania. In 1377 Louis campaigned successfully against the Turks. Louis not only brought Hungarian power to its greatest height, but also fostered art and learning, which were influenced both by his French background and by his campaigns, which brought Hungarians in contact with the Italian Renaissance.
Zrinyi, noble Hungarian family of Croatian origin. Nicholas Zrinyi, 1508-06, distinguished himself in the defense of Vienna (1529) against Sultan Suleiman I, took part in the campaign of Ferdinand I against John Zapolya, who claimed the Hungarian crown as John I, and was appointed (1542) ban (viceroy) of Croatia. He is famous for his defense of Szigetvar against the army of Suleiman I and was killed there while attempting a sortie. His great-grandson, Nicholas Zrinyi, 1610-64, was made ban of Croatia in 1647. He campaigned successfully against the Turks and was the acknowledged national leader of the Hungarians when he died in a hunting accident. He was a distinguished poet, one of the first to use Hungarian as a literary language. Besides lyric poetry, he also wrote an epic poem on the defense of Szigetvar by his ancestor and several prose works on political subjects, modeled in style on Machiavelli. His brother, Peter Zrinyi, 1621-71, became ban of Croatia in 1605. Disappointed by the absolutist policy of the Hapsburgs, who owed their success in Hungary largely to the Zrinyi family, he joined (1071) with several other Hungarian magnates in a conspiracy against Emperor Leopold I. The plot, backed by Louis XIV of France, was ill organized and easily suppressed. Zrinyi was executed. His daughter, Helen (Hung. Ilona) Zrinyi (d. 1703), married Francis I RAKOCZI, and, after Rakoczi's death, Emeric THOKOLY. She was the mother of the Hungarian national hero, Francis II Rakoczi.
Hunyadi, John, (Hung. Hunyadi János), c.1385-1456, Hungarian national hero, leader of the resistance against the Turks. He was chosen (1441) voivode of Transylvania under King Uladislaus I (Ladislaus III of Poland) and won numerous victories over the Turks. In 1444, however, the Christians were routed at Varna and the king was slain. Hunyadi, after a period of confusion, was chosen (1440) regent by the Hungarian diet. Young LADISLAUS V, chosen king in 1444, was kept from his kingdom by his guardian, Emperor FREDERIC III, until 1453. When Ladislaus assumed the rule, Hunyadi laid down his regency and devoted his full energy to fighting the Turks, His fight was a Chistian crusade and was aided by Pope Calixtus III. With St. JOHN CAPISTRAN, Hunyadi defeated (1458) the Turks at Belgrade and thus staved off the Turkish conquest of Hungary for 70 years. Hunyadi was bitterly opposed by many of the Magyar nobles, among them his own son Ladislaus (Hung. László), who was murdered in 1457 (one year after his father's death), possibly on the instigation of Ladislaus V. John Hunyadi's younger son became king as MATTHIAS CORVINUS.
Matthias Corvinus, 1443?-1490, king of Hungary (1458-90) and Bohemia (1478-90), second son of John HUNYADI. He was elected king of Hungary on the death of LADISLAUS V. Emperor FREDERICK III sought to contest the election, but recognized him In 1482. Matthias won a reputation as a crusader against the Turks. He was persuaded by Pope Pius II to take up arms against his first father-in-law, GEORGE OF PODEBRAD, king of Bohemia. Having conquered Moravia, Silesia, and Lusatia, Matthias had himself crowned (1469) king of Bohemia, but was not recognized by the Bohemian diet. The war continued after the accession of Ladislaus II of Bohemia. In 1478 peace was made: both Ladislaus and Matthias were to keep the title king of Bohemia; Matthias was to keep his conquests, which, however, were to revert to Bohemia after his death. After fighting two wars (1477, 1479) against Frederick III, Matthias began (1482) a third campaign. He took Vienna (1485) and conquered Styria, Carinthia, and Carniola, but his conquests were lost again after his death. His military success was largely due to the establishment of a standing army. During his rule Hungary reached its last flowering before its fall to Turkey. He respected the national institutions but was harsh in his fiscal policy and in his administration of justice. A true Renaissance despot, he protected learning and science. His library at Buda, the Corvina, was one of the finest in Europe. He was succeeded in Hungary by Ladislaus II of Bohemia (ULADISLAUS II in Hungary).
Louis II, 1506-26, king of Hungary and Bohemia (15l6-26), son and successor of Uladislaus II. He was the last of the Jagiello dynasty in the two kingdoms. In face of the intensified attacks by Sultan SULEIMAN I, Louis in 1520 hastily sought to unite Hungary and Christendom behind him, but only the pope sent help. With a pitiful army Louis joined battle with the Turks at MOHACS. The Hungarian army was destroyed. Louis was killed. Through the marriage treaty concluded by his father (see ULADISLAUS II) the crowns of Hungary and Bohemia passed to Louis's brother-in-law, Ferdinand of Hapsburg (later Emperor FERDINAND I), but Hungary fell under Turkish rule.
Mohacs, Hung. Mohács, city (pop. 18,355), S Hungary, an important inland port on the Danube. Mohacs is best known for the disastrous defeat (Aug.29, 1526) there of Louis II of Hungary by SULEIMAN I of Turkey. Hungary was ill prepared for the attack: its nobles had curtailed the royal military power, magnates and gentry were in constant strife, and the oppressed peasantry was not entrusted with arms. Louis's army was poorly equipped, badly led, and outnumbered at least three to one. John Zapolya (see JOHN I), with a large Transylvanian contingent, never joined him, perhaps through treachery. The king, the flower of the Hungarian nobility, and almost every soldier of the army were killed in the battle or massacred after being taken prisoners. This, the worst disaster of Hungarian history, opened the 150 years of Ottoman domination. There are monuments at Mohacs to the slain, regarded ever since as martyrs to Christianity and Hungarian independence. Mohacs was also the scene (1687) of a Turkish defeat by CHARLES V of Lorraine.
John I (John Zapolya), 1487-1540, king of Hungary (1528-40), voivode of Transylvania (1511-20), son of Stephen ZAPOLYA. The leader of the anti-foreign party of the Hungarian nobles, he secured a decree at the diet of 1505 by which no foreign ruler would be chosen king of Hungary after the death of king ULADISLAUS II. To strengthen his own candidacy for the crown he sought to marry the king's daughter. Anna, but his suit was rejected and he was removed from the court through his appointment as voivode of Transylvania. He ruthlessly crushed a peasant uprising in 1514. His anger at the marriage of Anna to Ferdinand of Austria (later Emperor FERDINAND I) probably motivated his failure to assist King Louis II at the battle of MOHACS (1520). Louis II was killed in the battle. John was crowned king by the Hungarian nobles, but Ferdinand of Austria claimed the crown on the basis of his marriage with Anna as well as previous agreements. In 1527 Ferdinand defeated John and was crowned by John's opponents. John retired to his stronghold in the Carpathians. In 1529 the Turks began to overrun Hungary. John now descended upon and defeated Ferdinand's army and, after surrendering the crown to Sultan Suleiman I, was confirmed king by the sultan, who exercised real control. The struggle between John and Ferdinand ended in 1538 when John who was then childless, agreed that the crown should pass to Ferdinand after his death. The agreement was set aside when, a few months before John's death, a son, John Sigismund (John II), was born.
John II (John Sigismund Zapolya), 1540-71, king of Hungary and prince of Transylvania, son of John I. Through his mother, Isabel (daughter of Sigismund I of Poland), he was related to the Jagiello dynasty. He was crowned king of Hungary on his father's death (1540). Sultan SULEIMAN I, on the pretext of protecting the infant's interests, invaded (1541) Hungary and took the capital, Buda, which remained in Turkish hands for 150 years. John and Isabel were given the principality of Transylvania, under Turkish suzerainty. Actual power was in the hands of John's guardian, the monk George Martinuzzi, who sought to restore a unified Hungary. In 1551 Martinuzzi procured the deposition of John and Isabel, who retired to Silesia, and reunited Transylvania with Hungary, recognizing Ferdinand of Austria and Bohemia (later Emperor FERDINAND I) as king. Martinuzzi, made prince-primate and a cardinal, soon fell out with Ferdinand, who accused him of treasonable negotiations and who had him assassinated. On the pressure of Suleiman I the diet of Transylvania recalled (1550) John and Isabel. When Ferdinand made peace (1502) with Suleiman, he recognized John as ruler of Transylvania. John did homage to Suleiman in 1566, when the sultan led his armies into Hungary in his last campaign. An eight-year truce (1568) between Emperor Maximilian II and Sultan Selim II confirmed John in Transylvania. Thus Hungary remained split into three states -an Austrian part, a Turkish part, and Transylvania. John II's rule in Transylvania was remarkable for the adoption (1564) of Calvinism as the state religion by the diet. He was succeeded as prince of Transylvania by Stephen Bathory.
Bocskay, Stephen, Hung. Bocskay István., 1557?-1660, Hungarian noble, voivode (1604-6) and prince (1605-6) of Transylvania. Seeking to secure the independence of TRANSYLVANIA, he supported his nephew, Prince Sigismund BATHORY, first against the pro-Turkish, then against the pro-Hapsburg, factions of nobles. Sigismund having abdicated (1602) in favor of the king of Hungary (Emperor Rudolf II), Stephen Bocskay, in 1604 led a revolt with Turkish support against Rudolf's attempt to impose Roman Catholicism in Hungary. Bocskay then acknowledged the sultan as his suzerain, but refused his offer of rocognition as king of Hungary. In 1606 he negoiated with Archduke (later Emperor) MATTHIAS a treaty at Vienna which legalized the partition of Hungary between the Hapsburgs (as kings), the sultan, and Transylvania. The old and sacred Hungarian crown of St. Stephen was returned to Pressburg (Pozsony, now Bratislava), the capital of Hapsburg-held Hungary. The importance of the treaty, which was soon afterward supplemented by a peace between Austria and Sultan AHMED I, lay in the guarantee of religious freedom for Hungary. Bocskay was recognized as prince of Transylvania. To avoid paying tribute to the sultan, he presented him with a large gift. He died as he was proposing to renew hostilities against the Hapsburgs.
|JOHN HUNYADI: Hungary in American History Textbooks|