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October22, 1976 JIMMY CARTER

In spite of this promise given to the American voters of Hungarian descent, and in spite of the repeated protests by the American Hungarian Federation, the Transylvanian World Federation, the Committee on Transylvania, the Committee of Human Rights in Romania, the Polish­Hungarian World Federation and Affiliated Organizations, and several other ethnic groups:


Sanctions Against Rumania Defeated Again!

October 1979
The Transylvanian Quarterly

In spite of strong opposition Congress disregards

mistreatment of minorities.

On July 25, 1979, Rep. Richard T. Schulze (R­Philadelphia) introduced a resolution in the House of Representaties disapproving extension of the most­favored­nation trade status for Rumania.

"The Rumanian government continues to abuse the Hungarian population" spoke Congressman Schulze (Congressional Records, House, July25, 1979). "There are over 2.5 million Hungarians who are being forced to assimilate themselves into the Rumanian culture. They have done away with Hungarian schools, bilingual signs, and any form of self­administration for these Hungarian people. Today, Hungarians find it difficult to find employment, and cities overwhelmingly populated by Hungarians are governed by non­Hungarian speaking mayors. The subcommittee received very detailed, factual, well­supported evidence, confirmed also by independent Western sources, of a systematic effort to destroy a whole network of Hungarian cultural institutions, to deprive this ethnic group of its lanugage, traditions, and cultural identity."
"I emphasize the element of destruction in this process." Schulze added. "It is the closing of the schools where children can study in their mother tongue. It is the elimination of one of Europe's oldest universities. It is the campaign of extreme ethnic, cultural and religious intolerance which the Hungarians are protesting. This deculturization campaign is a very germane issue when we view the full picture of Rumania's performance in human rights."
Congressman Christopher J. Dodd (D­Conn.) remarked: "The plight of 2.5 million Hungarians in that country can not be indifferent to us. Their condition, instead of being improved, it has worsened."
Congressman Larry McDonald, (D­Georgia): "Rumania shamelessly continues to suppress its national minorities, especially the Hungarian minority..."

Congressman John H. Rousselot (R. Calif.):
"Reports indicate that the ruling regime in Rumania is attempting to systematically eliminate all facets of Hungarian culture. By prohibiting the usage of the Hungarian language in public institutions and elsewhere, an effort is being made to virtually deprive the Hungarians of their language and thus, their cultural identity. Other steps taken toward denationalizing Rumania's minorities include discrimination against minorities in employment, and the absence of their representation in government. Of course we are all familiar with those conditions described by dissident Karoly Kiraly." (Editor's note: updated information on the Kiraly case is given elsewhere on these pages.)
Congressman Edward J. Derwinski (R­Ill.) remarked: "This discussion of Hungarian minority rights is totally irrelevant because there is only one thing we can do with the Hungarians (of Transylvania). If they are a minority in Rumania, we could give the area back to Hungary!"
Good words spoken in behalf of the oppressed Hungarians of Transylvania will not be forgotten by the 1.2 million Americans of Hungarian descent. Neither will be the names of those 125 enlightened and freedom loving political leaders who, in true American tradition, stood up for the rights of the oppressed against the oppressor, and voted "yea" on the resolution aimed to strip the Rumanian government from the benefit of American tax­dollars in retaliation to their extremely cruel treatment of the minorities.
Those who voted "nay" and rejected the resolution did a great disservice, not just to those oppressed millions who are looking with hope at the U.S.A. as the champion of liberty, but to this country, also. Aiding tyrants with American tax­dollars is the complete denial of everything this nation stands for.
We must assume that it was only ignorance of the true facts which made those distinguished congressmen and congresswomen cast their votes in approval of the vicious minority policies of the Rumanian Communist Government (more NAZI than Communist in its practices), refusing to reach out a helping hand to those who are facing daily harassments, discriminations, beatings, tortures, imprisonment, and lately, even nuclear radiation while at the mercy of a government of hate and bigotry.
We know that the day will come when our nation and our government will realize that lasting peace and prosperity can be secured only through radical reliance on the very princples this nation104
was built upon. If we truly believe that "all men are created equal, endowed with inalienable rights" we have no business degrading ourselves and our poltical system by aiding those who practice tyrann,. cultural genocide, and have no regard for the rights of other nationalities living in captivity on occupied territories.

The names of those fine Americans who voted against the world's most vicious oppressor are listed here:

James Abdnor, Rep. S. Dakota
Douglas Applegate, Dem. Ohio
Robert E. Badham, Rep. California
L. A. (Skip) Bafalis, Rep. Florida
Robert E. Bauman, Rep. Maryland
Robin L. Beard, Rep. Tennessee
Adam Benjamin. Jr., Dem. Indiana
Charles E. Bennett, Dem, Florida
Douglas K. Bereuter, Rep. Nebraska
Edwin R. Bethune, Jr., Rep. Arkansas
Jack Brinkley, Dem, Georgia
William S. Broomfield, Rep. Michigan
Clisir W. Burgener, Rep. California
William Carney, Rep. New York
Bill Chappell, Jr., Dem. Florida
Don H. Clausen, Rep. California
James C. Cleveland, Rep. New Hampshire
William F. Clinger, Jr., Rep. Penna.
James M. Collins, Rep. Texas
Silvio 0. Conte, Rep. Massachusetts
Daniel B. Crane, Rep. Illinois
Philip M. Crane, Rep. Illinois
Dan Daniel, Dem. Virginia
Robert W. Daniel, Jr., Rep. Virginia
William F. Dannemeyer, Rep. California
Robert W. Davis, Rep. Michigan
Joel H. Deckard, Rep. Indiana
Samuel L. Devine, Rep. Ohio
William L. Dickinson, Rep. Alabama
Christopher J. Dodd, Dem. Conn,
Robert K. Dornan, Rep. California
John S. Duncan, Rep. Tennessee
Mickey Edwards, Rep. Oklahoma
Glenn English, Dem. Oklahoma
Geraldine A. Ferraro, Dem. New York
Newton Gingrich. Rep. Georgia
Barry M. Goldwater, Jr., Rep. Calif.
William F. Goodling, Rep. Penna.
Willis D. Gradison, Jr., Rep. Ohio
Phil Gramm, De., Texas
Charles F. Grassley, Rep. Iowa
William S. Green, Rep. New York
Tennyson Guyer, Rep. Ohio
Wayne Grisham, Rep. California
Tom Hagedorn, Rep. Minnesota
John P. Hammerschmidt, Rep. Ark.
Kent Hance, Dem. Texas
George Hansen, Rep. Idaho
William H. Harsha, Rep. Ohio
Elwood Hillis, Rep. Indiana
Jon Hinson, Rep. Mississippi
Marjorie S. Holt, Rep. Maryland
Larry S. Hopkins, Rep. Kentucky
Frank Horton, Rep. New York
Henry S. Hyde, Rep. Illinois
Richard H. Ichord, Dem, Mo.
James E. Jeffries, Rep. Kansas
Richard Kelly, Rep. Florida

Jack F. Kemp, Rep. New York
Thomas N. Kindness, Rep. Ohio
Peter H. Kostmayer, Dem. Penna.
Ken Kramer, Rep. Colorado
Robert S. Lagomarsino, Rep. Cal.
Delbert L. Latta, Rep. Ohio
Marvin Leath, Dem. Texas
Raymond F. Lederer, Dem. Penna.
Norman F. Lent, Rep. New York
Jerry Lewis, Rep. California
Bob Livingston, Rep. Louisiana
Trent Lott, Rep. Miss.
Stanley N. Lundine, Dem. New York
Dan Lungren, Rep. California
Robert McClory, Rep. Illinois
Joseph M. McDade, Rep. Penna.
Larry McDonald, Dem. Georgia
Ron Marlenee, Rep. Montana
Dan Marriott, Rep. Utah
Dawson Mathias, Dem. Georgia
Clarence E. Miller, Rep. Ohio
Donald J. Mitchell, Rep. New York
Carlos J. Moorhead, Rep. Calif.
Ronald M. Mottl, Dem. Ohio
Austin J. Murphy, Dem. Penna.
John T. Meyers, Rep. Indiana
Michael 0. Myers, Dem. Penna.
Mary Rose Oakar, Dem. Ohio
James J. Oberstar, Dern. Minn.
Leon E. Panetta, Dem, Calif.
Charles Pashayan, Jr., Rep. Calif.
Edward J. Patten, Dem. N.J.
Ron Paul, Rep. Texas
Thomas E. Petri, Rep. Wiac,
Carl D. Pursell, Rep. Mich.
Donald Lawrence Ritter, Rep. Penna,
Kenneth S. Robinson, Rep. Va.
Robert A. Roe, Dem. N.J.
Toby Roth, Rep. Wisc.
John H. Rousselot, Rep. Calif.
Eldon Rudd, Rep. Ariz.
Bill Royer. Rep. Calii.
Harold Runnels, Dem. New Mexico
Jim Santini, Dem. Nevada
David E. Satterfield III, Dem. Virginia
Harold S. Sawyer, Rep. Mich.
Richard T. Schulze, Rep. Pa.
Keith G. Sebelius, Rep. Kansas
James F. Sensenbrenner, Jr., Rep. Wisc.
Norman D. Shumway, Rep. Calif.
Virginia Smith, Rep. Nebraska
Gene Snyder, Rep. Ky.
Gerald B. H. Solomon, Rep. N.Y.
Floyd Spence, Rep. S.C.
Arland Stangeland, Rep. Minn.
Steven D. Symmns, Rep. Idaho
Gene Taylor, Rep. Mo.
Paul S. Trible, Jr., Rep. Va.
Guy Vander Jagt, Rep. Mich.
Robert S. Walker, Rep. Pa.
Richard C. White, Dem. Texas
William G. Whitehurst, Rep. Va.
Robert (Bob) Whittaker, Rep. Kansas
Larry Winn, Jr., Rep. Kansas
Joe Wyatt, Jr., Dem. Texas
John W. Wydler, Rep. N.Y.
Chalmers P. Wylie, Rep. Ohio
Bill C. W. Young, Rep. Fla.

God bless you all!


Ethnic Oppression in Romania
by the
of Pennsylvania in the House of Representatives

Thursday, June 5, 1980

Mr. Speaker, within a week, the House of Representatives will again take up the issue of continued most­favored­nation trade status benefits for Romania.
Last year, 125 of my colleagues joined me in voting to terminate that status, because of the dismal human rights record of Romania, which is one of the most deplorable even among Communist states.
One facet of that record is the Romanian regime's brutal treatment of its minorities. among them 2.5 million Hungarians, who are subjected to a relentless campaign of discrimination, cultural deprivation. and forced assimilation. This campaign resulted in one of the most courageous acts of dissent of our time, the protest letters of Mr. Karoly Kiraly, former alternate member of the Romanian party Politburo. Mr. Kiraly has sacrificed his high position, risked the well­being of his family and his own life by expressing his conscience and speaking out against the oppression of his fellow Hungarians. As a result of his letters he has been exiled, subjected to the most vicious charges. and has lived under constant police surveillance and harassment ever since.
Last January, I visited Romania and intended to meet Mr. Kiraly to get his opinion firsthand. However, the Romanian authorities denied me the opportunity to meet him on the most flimsy pretexts. His voice of protest, however, could not be silenced. Last February, he sent another extraordinary protest letter to Romania's Prime Minister, Ilie Verdet. The letter reveals the promises he received from the Romanian leadership in an obvious attempt to silence him after his first letters of 1977. All of those promises have been broken, and the campaign of cultural genocide continues unabated. I submit to you Mr. Kiraly's letter as further evidence of the oppressiveness of the Ceausescu regime.
Before we discuss Romania's trade status once again, I urge my colleagues to pay close attention to the words of this courageous individual. We must not turn a deaf ear to those in the Communist world, who are natural allies in our fight for the betterment of the human condition.

At this point, I enter into the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD the letter of Kiraly Kiraly ­a great champion of human rights.

COMRADE ILIE VERDET, Prime Minister of the Socialist Republic of Rumania.
Two years have passed since our last conversation at your office in the company of Petre Lupu, Teodor Coman and Janos Vinte. Since that time, numerous events have transpired in the life of our country. The 12th Congress of the Rumanian Communist Party and the 2nd Congress of the Democratic Front of the Socialist Union have been held. Our conversation on October 4, 1977 was particularly significant. At your urgent request, I submitted a memorandum (of which you kept two copies) which summarized several key discussions and confrontations.
In essence, we agreed that I would drop the idea of forming a new organization for the Co­inhabiting nationalities, whose function would have been to defend their constitutional rights. I made this concession on the condition that ­ and I quote from the above mentioned memorandum:
"...all necessary steps are taken to guarantee the rights provided for in the Constitution and other laws, including the practical implementation of these rights in all areas ­ education, cultural activity and use of the native tongue in all organizations and official bodies without discrimination of any kind ­ provided that disciplinary action is taken against those individuals, government employees and police officials who violate such rights."
"I abandoned the idea of a new nationality statute on the grounds that the Party and government leadership will take concrete measures to respect and implement the Constitution and the laws of the Socialist Republic of Rumania. My opinion with respect to the nationality statute is that as soon as those provisions of the Constitution and other laws pertaining to the nationalities are implemented, in other words, when the nationalities are granted the unobstructed use of their rights, the proposal for a nationality statute becomes unnecessary. In that event, I am willing to give up the idea which was presented in my letter to Comrade Verdet."
"What I do consistently maintain is that definite steps must be taken toward the elimination of the existing shortcomings and abuses, wherever and in whatever form they appear."
During the discussion, you asked me to be patient, because the Party would take steps to remedy the mistakes which had been committed. I was gratified by your assertion that these steps would he implemented after a thorough and detailed analysis of the recommendations which I, and many other nationality representatives in Rumania had made. Though I did not trust entirely in these promises, I hoped and impatiently waited for the deeds to follow. Unfortunately, practically nothing has been done to solve these problems, to change the situation of the national minorities. I am now compelled by these broken promises to raise this question again. What has happened in the area of minority problems, has engendered only dissatisfaction.
In the area of education the opportunity for children to study in the mother tongue has narrowed even further. Classes in the mother tongue have been eliminated. The discriminatory Decree Law 258 was not repealed. In the Banat and the Mezoseg region of Transylvania there are communities and cities where there is not a single Hungarian­language class, elementary or trade school. In Moldavia, in entirely Hungarian Csango communities, no form of education in the mother tongue exists.
No improvements can be found in the higher levels of education either, where the situation is also continuously deteriorating.
Nothing has changed for the better in the use of the mother tongues of the national minorities. In the administraiton of justice, the state organs. etc., the only language permitted is Rumanian. In meetings of the Party, the trade unions, the Communist Youth League, as well as in meetings of industrial or agricultural workers, all presentations are made in the Rumanian language, even where the overwhelming majority of the audience is not Rumanian. The Rumanian language remains in use even at meetings of the Nationality Workers' Councils. It appears that religious service is the only occasion when the mother tongue may be used without restriction. However, the Moldavian Csango villages are an exception even to this. In spite of the fact that the inhabitants are all Hungarians and Roman Catholics, they have Rumanian priests, and as a consequence, their services are conducted not in their Hungarian mother tongue, but in the Rumanian language. Not to mention the fact that in the Moldavian villages inhabited by Csango Hungarians, all forms of schooling and instruction in the mother tongue have been eliminated for two decades. In the last census they were denied even the possibility of declaring themselves Hungarian, and were officially declared Rumanian. Such actions would not have happened in the past, even under the most reactionary regimes.
As regards the Nationality Councils, their activities are determined exclusively by orders from above. These Councils do not represent the interests of the nationalities. The people belonging to these nationalities cannot participate in the activities of the Councils, and do not elect Council members. The local authorities and the Party Central Committee appoint them. The Party uses these Councils to enforce its own discriminatory nationality policies. To get to the head of these Committees, one must have the following qualifications:
He should be a man without character.
He should be able to clap vigorously.
He should speak only when the Party asks him to, and he should say what the Party wants him to say (naturally one must submit one's speeches in writing beforehand).
An extremely burning issue is the total lack of protection of the collective rights of Rumania's national minorities, whether the nationality group is large, as in the case of the Hungarians and Germans, or small as in the case of the Serbs, Russians, Turks, Bulgarians, etc. None of them enjoys collective rights.
This lack precipitates the dissolution of ethnic communities and renders their members increasingly defenseless against the policies of forced assimilation. After getting rid of the Jews, we are going in the most direct way toward getting rid of the Saxons and Swabians, and finishing the denationalization of such small ethnic communities as the Armenians, Tartars, Turks, etc. All that remains is the problem of the Hungarians, which is more intricate and more difficult to solve. Thus, the concept of the political nation was borrowed from the arsenal of 19th Century nationalism, and as a consequence, steps were taken to intensify the forced assimilation of the national minorities:
All community organizations with nationality characteristics were abolished.
The Ministry whose task it was to oversee and protect the nationalities was abolished.
The Hungarian Autonomous Region was abolished.
Since 1955, education in the mother tongue has been curtailed, in the beginning through merger, then through elimination.
In the interest of correcting the errors and abuses committed against the nationalities, I consider it necessary that the following measures be instituted:
1. Life within and without the Party must be democratized. The machinations of the totally discredited personality cult must be renounced if the nationality question is to be assured an honorable solution.
2. With regard to the nationality question:
(a) Three official languages should be equally recognized in the Socialist Republic of Rumania: Rumanian, Hungarian and German.
(b) A suitable Nationality Statute should be enacted.
(c) Organizations with elected leadership should be established for the nationalities to practice and protect their rights, as well as to serve the friendship and fraternal cooperation between the majority and the minority nationalities.
(d) In those areas where ethnic communities, be they Hungarian, German, Serb, etc. are in the majority, autonomous local administration should be established on the county or province level. Even if the Rumanian inhabitants are in a majority in the country as a whole, there are places, communities, cities, indeed entire provinces in Transylvania and the Banat, where people belonging to the various nationalities live, and where they represent the majority,
(e) Radio and television programming, and the press should be provided in three languages: Rumanian, Hungarian, and German.
(f) In Transylvania the three languages should be taught in a parallel manner in the schools, and either none of them or all three of them should be mandatory
All this I propose and insist upon, since equality cannot exist in a subordinate way. Whatever is subordinate cannot be equal, especially in the problematic area of nation and nationality. A subordinate man cannot be equal as a citizen, he cannot be free of material, moral, and intellectual oppression, he cannot be equal to his fellow man, before the Creator and the law. A just society can oniy exist in a country with a social system which realizes social and political equality not in words but in practice.
February 10, 1980 Károly Király

(Editor's note; due to lack of space Mr. Kiraly's letter had to be condensed. The original letter in its entirety can be found in the Congressionai Records, June 5, 1980 Pages E 2765­66­67.

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