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1. It has been documented again and again in the U.S. House of Representatives, in the United Nations, during the conferences of Belgrade and Madrid that Rumania is today the most terroristic police state on the face of the Earth, where the number of atrocities (including murder) committed against national and religious minorities increases year after year.
2. During the hostage crisis Rumania supported the revolutionary regime of Iran by transporting Iranian oil through Russia in order to circumvent the American boycott.
3. Rumania furnished proof again of her solidarity with the Soviet Union by aiding Russian espionage against the United States through the Rumanian embassy in Washington.
4.It is not fair to the American taxpayer, and is harmful to the economy of the United States to aid the most oppressive regime on Earth!

We, the undersigned duly elected officers of the United States Branches of the Transylvanian World Federation and Affiliated Organizations in seventeen states are deeply concerned about the native Hungarian population of Transylvania, today a province of the Socialist Republic of Rumania. Close to three­million Hungarians, for centuries part of the ruling majority inhabiting the ancient Hungarian homeland, were thrown into minority status due to the dismemberment of Hungary, and are facing cultural genocide and constant physical abuse from the government of the Socialist Republic of Rumania. Since we firmly believe that the Government of the United States of America is in the position to help and save these people from the ruthless oppression of an ultranationalistic police state, therefore:

We Petition

to update the Trade Act of1974 in order to reflect the provisions of Basket Three of the Helsinki Final Agreement, at least as it applies to the countries which signed it.
The Heilsinki Final Agreement was signed in July 1975. The trade agreement with Rumania was signed in August 1975, based on the Trade Act of 1974. This arrangement overrides the provisions of the Helsinki Final Agreement, and leaves no other recourse for the native Hungarian population of Transylvania, province of Rumania, other than to assimilate, commit suicide, or leave their native land.
As it appears that the Jackson­Vanic Amendment had its effect in enabling some to reach the land of their dreams, the modification of the Trade Act of 1974 should likewise have its effect in enabling people to enjoy life in their own homeland. Thus the United States could better promote and publicize its own principles and at the same time allow for a profitable trade.
As Representative Vanic said in his closing remarks at the Trade Committee hearing on June 10, 1980 (See: H serial 96­128, p.278): "There is hardly a week going by that we are not successful in settling something here. So we shall continue in those efforts and see if we can be helpful. If that does not work, you may have to take some other more stringent legislative procedure."
Respectfully submitted for your consideration:

ALBERT WASS de CZEGE president
State of Florida

general secretary
State of Ohio

Washington representative

Voice of the Catacombs

July, 1983

We are presenting here excerpts of the Memorandum published by the Transylvanian Underground in November, 1982 and sent to the participating governments of the Madrid Conference, among them the government of the United States. Since our State Department has the entire text on file, these excerpts serve only to bring to the attention of the general public the desperate struggle of the three­million­strong Hungarian native population of Transylvania under the brutal oppression of the Ceausescu government Many of those brave patriots who wrote, published and distributed this Memorandum are dead now, while others are suffering in the Rumanian torture chambers for having had the courage to speak the truth and ask for a just solution of the Hungarian problem in Rumania.

"The Hungarians of Transylvania are facing the most dangeorus times of their entire history. The laws and international agreements which are supposed to secure our existence, serve only as camouflage to hide the actions of the Rumanian government, which are in complete opposition to those laws and agreements Rumania obligated itself to follow in dealing with the ethnic minorities.
"Since we firmly believe that two different ethnic groups can coexist only as equal partners, we ask for the Hungarians in Transylvania the right to self­representation and the right to demand the recognition of their rights.
"We demand to be recognized as partakers of the Hungarian cultural heritage and be allowed. as Rumanian citizens, to keep our cultural contacts with the Hungarian People's Republic.
"We demand the recognition of our cultural autonomy as well as the right to self­representation as an ethnic community in Rumania.
"We demand self administraton and share in the leadership of our country.
"We demand that the Hungarian language be recognized as second official language in the Hungarian­inhabited districts.
"We demand equal opportunities and equal treatment.
"We demand the right to cherish and preserve our cultural, historical and ethnic environment.
"We demand that an International Committee be formed, which would include Rumanian and Hungarian representatives also, in order to examine our situation and render unbiased decisions for the sake of our survival!"
Though the writers and editors responsible for this message were arrested, tortured, and some of them are probably dead by now, their voice, the voice of the Transylvanian catacombs, can be heard all over this world and is resounding in the hearts of free men everywhere.

of the New Resistance
Movement in Transylvania

On December 12, 1988, the following appeal Romania, called NEPSZABADSAG (Freedom, for leaders of the world):
"The democratic resistance movement in Romania, called NEPSZABADSAG (Freedom for the People), organized by Hungarian, German, Jewish, Ukrainian, Armenian, Greek, Gypsy, Serbian, Croatian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Slovakian and Turkish nationalities, composing 59% of the total population, with the cooperation of many clear thinking Rumanians, came to the decision to ask the United Nations, the governments of the United States, the United Kingdom, France, the Soviet Union, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden, Norway, Austria, Finland, Denmark, The Netherlands, Belgium, Italy, Greece, the Vatican and all religious and civic organizations in this world ­ TO EXERCISE INFLUENCE UPON THE GOVERNMENT OF THE SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF ROMANIA in the name of humanism, causing this government to change its policy toward the national minorities native to this country. WE ACCUSE THE CEAUSESCU GOVERNMENT of attempting by brutal force to liquidate the cultural heritage of all the native nationalities in this country and to eliminate every citizen who is not of Rumanian blood. Therefore we ask the above mentioned governments to
It is not so much the hunger and poverty due to the economic policies of this dictatorship which is the most unbearable to us, but the brutal treatment and the daily abasement and humiliation to which we are exposed as inferior human beings. It is indeed a disgrace that in the last quarter of the twentieth century we are forced to turn with our scream for help to the world, but our situation has become so intolerable and beyond endurance that our only recourse left is the conscience of the human race.
It is not our aim to commit terrorist acts. All we want is to be able to live as it is becoming to a human being. In order to protect our lives and the lives of our families from the vengeance of this terror regime under which we are forced to live, we sign as ­ The Leadership of the Democratic Resistance Movement in Romania called NEPSZABADSAG ­ Freedom for the People!"
In support of this appeal the NEPSZABADSAG submitted two weeks later to the same governments a "factual and documented proof" of their distress. The following is a condensed version of those facts:
"Due to the extreme cruelties used by the Rumanian authorities against dissenters, we can not name the sources of our statistics, because it would endanger the lives of many people, including many of our Rumanian friends, and their families. Nevertheless, our facts are correct, and can be counterchecked by an international commisson seriously embarked on the purpose of finding out the truth."
"In 1982, according to the secret files of the SECURITATE, 1343 Hungarians died or disappeared while in police custody. During the first five months of 1983 in Transylvania alone 31,816 arrests took place for political reasons."
“Whenever the Western Press brings the name of someone who was tortured to death by the Rumanian police, within a few days every member of his family is arrested here, tortured and dies of "accidental" death or commits suicide."
"We realize that all this seems unbelievable to those who live in a decent land. But this country is different. What makes it different? The very fact that 197,813 members of the former IRON GUARD are today the backbone of Rumania's Communist Party, and therefore THE PARTY IS DOMINATED BY RADICAL ULTRA­NATIONALIST ELEMENTS."
"Besides the open brutality against all those who use their mother tongue in public places, the forced Rumanization pursued by this government is aimed at the total destruction of our ancient Hungarian culture, which is the native culture of Transylvania. During the last ten years more than ELEVEN MILLION BOOKS IN THE HUNGARIAN LANGUAGE, CONFISCATED FROM LIBRARIES, SCHOOLS AND PRIVATE HOMES WERE BURNED AND CULTURAL MONUMENTS DESTROYED."
"Those who officiaily represent today the national minorities are nominated to this post and paid by the Ceausescu government. They are carefully selected traitors and the only ones authorized to speak in the name of the minorities. Some of them are even sent abroad to tell of the wonderful life under the Ceausescu regime. Whenever a delegation arrives from any foreign country with the purpose to examine complaints concerning the treatment of minorities, these are the so­called 'leaders' of those minorities who are eager to reassure the visitors that everything is well."
"All national and religious minorities in this country are united in seeking redress in our plight, and at the same time many Rumanian workers sympathize with our cause, for they are suffering also, if not in the same degree, from the terroristic policies of the Nationalist£ommunist Party, which rules our country today."
The Democratic Resistance
Movement in Rumania

of the Transylvanian World Federation
Ladies Auxiliary in Cleveland, Ohio

September, 1984

We, the undersigned, are concerned about the Hungarian native population of Rumania. Over 3 million Hungarians live in the Transylvanian portion of Rumania, a land that for almost 1000 years was an integral part of Hungary. These people are not immigrants nor minorities in this region but part of the Hungarian majority inhabiting the Carpathian Basin.
The Rumanian government, due to misguided nationalistic tendencies and prejudices, has constantly violated the basic human and national rights of these Hungarians. In light of the tragic situation, we hereby petition our government, the government of the United States of America, to take action on behalf of these people.
We ask, as an immediate measure, that the Trade Agreement with Rumania signed originaily in August 1975 not to be renewed again. We ask this on the grounds that the Rumanian government is not in compliance with the Helsinki Final Act. The Trade Agreement cannot override the provisions of the Helsinki Final Agreement that requires the protection of human rights, rights that include national and nationality rights also.
It is well documented that the Rumanian government has not made any effort to change its policy of repression against the Hungarian and German populations of Transylvania.
We believe that through the proper interpretation and application of the Trade Act, the United States could better promote its own principles and at the same time do much to encourage Compliance with the Helsinki Final Agreement human rights provisions.
We submit our Petition for serious consideration.


Mrs. Dora T. Dombrady, President and 668 signatures.

99ath Congress ­ 1st Session
H. Res. 56
Concerning observance by the Government of Romania
of the human rights of Hungarians in Transylvania,
especially the right of selfdetermination.


February 7, 1985

Mr. Dornan of California (for himself, Mr. Siljander, Mr. Dwyer of New Jersey, Mr. McGrath, Mr. Annunzio, Mr. Young of Missouri, Mr. Feighan, Mr. Metain, Mr. Addabbo, and Mr. Burton of Indiana) submitted the following resolution; which was referred to the Committee on Foreign Affalis.


Concerning observance by the Government of Romania of the human rights of Hungarians in Transylvania, especially the right of self­determination.
Whereas the Government of Romania has entered into treaties and accords (including the 1947 Paris Treaty of Peace with Romania, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, and the 1975 Helsinki Final Act of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe) which guarantee the human rights of its citizens without any discrimination as to religion and national origin;
Whereas the Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Romania also ensures far­reaching rights to the "co­inhabiting nationalities" in Romania;
Whereas the province of Transylvania, which has two million five hundred thousand Hungarians and which had constituted part of Hungary for a millennium, was originally ceded to Romania by the 1920 Trianon Treaty;
Whereas the fate of the Hungarians in 'Transylvania has been systematic denationalization under the various Romanian Governments, whether Royalist, Fascist, or Communist;
Whereas the Government of the Socialist Republic of Romania and its regional and local authorities pursue a policy of denationalization toward the Hungarians and people of other nationalities in Transylvania by measures approximating ethnocide, including (1) the destruction of Hungarian language schools and the Hungarian Bolyai University (still in existence in 1958) and the replacement of these schools by a steadily declining number of Hungarian sections in Romanian schools, (2) the destruction, or the making inaccessible to the public and scholars, of the documents of the Hungarian past of Transylvania, and (3) the conscious dispersion of the Hungarian intelligentsia into Romanian areas and the settlement of large number of Romanian colonists into the Hungarian areas of Transylvania;
Whereas the Socialist Republic of Romania actively interferes with the internal affairs of all its religious communities. severely limiting or banning all their social and teaching activities and discriminates against their members in employment, education, and promotion, particularly with regard to the members of the Catholic and Protestant churches which are composed of Hungarians and Germans; and
Whereas the two million five hundred thousand Hungarians in Transylvania are entitled to self­determination, a right protected under the Helsinki Final Act of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe: Now, therefore, be it
Resolved, That the House of Representatives

(1) deplores the activities of the Government of the Socialist Republic of Romania denying the rights of the Hungarians and people of other nationalities in Transylvania; and
(2) requests the President and the Secretary of State to discuss the issues of human rights of the Hungarians in Transylvania, including the right of national self­determination, with the Government of the Socialist Republic of Romania and with other appropriate governments.

An Open Letter to the Delegates to the
World Conference on Human Rights in Ottawa

May, 1985

Distinguished Delegate:

On the opening of the conference on human rights we turn toward you who will bring important decisions concerning the most important rights of human beings: to live in freedom and with human dignity.

During the conference many cases may be presented where these precious rights have been violated; i.e., instances involving arrest without warrant, imprisonment without trial, conviction on trumped­up charges, or the use of torture to extract false convictions, to name but a few.

But our main purpose of writing to you is to call your attention to another type of human rights violation, the willful and systematic oppression of national minorities, in some countries with mixed population. The only "sin" of these people is that they are of different nationality than the majority, i.e. they have different motherlanguage, different culture, different aspirations and even different religion. These millions want to keep their national identity as strongly as you want to keep your own to which you and they are fully entitled by natural, codified or uncodified, law.

We have mainly in mind the treatment of Hungarians just outside the present border of Hungary, inside Rumania, Czechoslovakia, the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia. Together, they number approximately four million people, being the largest national minority in Europe outside the Soviet Union. The territories referred to belonged to the Kingdom of Hungary for a thousand years until it was split up and distributed among these countries in the peace treaty of Trianon concluding World War I for Hungary ­with 8,250,000 Hungarian population. (Slovakia ceded its eastern part to the Soviet Union in 1945.)

Not much is known about the 200,000 Hungarian population of this new part of the Soviet Union. Due to the multinational structure of Yugoslavia, the half a million Hungarians living in that country are not so much discriminated against as the 2.5 million Hungarian population of Transylvania (Rumania) and the 700,000 in Czechoslovakia.

The Czechoslovak leadership seems to suffer in a nationalistic fervor for a long time. To satisfy itself it had led a systematic offensive against Hungarians in Slovakia which resulted in the post­war years in depriving Hungarians from the Czechoslovakian citizenship, closing their schools for a few years (so that the Hungarian youth has not had any education during those years) and wanting to expell all Hungarians from Slovakia in order to have a pure Slavic country including Czechs, Slovaks and Ukrainians only. In recent years Slovak nationalism flared up again threatening anew with the closing of all Hungarian schools. With this and the imprisonment of Miklos Duray, a young Hungarian geologist living in Slovakia, that country got in the forefront of human rights violations in East­Central Europe. Duray who organized a campaign against the closing of the Hungarian schools in Slovakia, was incarcerated last summer and kept in prison since without trial. Charges against him as far as it can be known are the usual in socialist countries: "activities contrary to the interest of the state."

Mr. Ceausescu, president of the Socialist Republic of Rumania, repeatedly and publicly asserted that Rumania is a unitary, one­nation state. These statements seem to govern Rumania's minority policies which more and more curtail educational and cultural opportunities for the nationalities with the obvious tendency of assimilating them as fast as possible. Of course, Rumania is not a one­nation state. On the contrary, next to Yugoslavia, Rumania is the second most multinational country in the area. It is populated by an estimated 2.5 million Hungarians, 450,000 Germans and several hundred­thousand Jews, Gypsies, Serbs, Bulgarians, Ukrainians and others, besides Rumanians. That is why Rumania applies all means available for a totalitarian government to forcibly absorb the non­Rumanian nationalities into the Rumanian ethnic body. Some of the ways used so far are:

*Closing of all Hungarian high schools and drastically reducing the number of elementary schools. The last Hungarian high school under the process of Rumanianization is the Roman Catholic founded, 400 year old high school in Kolozsvar (In Rumanian: Napoca­Cluj). The Babes­Bolyai University in the same city (previously the Hungarian cultural capital of Trans ylvania) has now an ever decreasing small department mainly for the Hungarian literature classes in spite of the Rumanian pledge, at the forcible merging of the Hungarian Bolyat and the Rumanian Babes universities in 1958, to maintain two equally strong Rumanian and Hungarian departments.

*Squeezing out the Hungarian language from all public use although constitutional assurance to the contrary. Hungarian language cannot be used at railway and bus depots, at law courts, at community authorities' offices, in hotels and restaurants. The suppression of language went so far as to compel Hungarian doctors to speak Rumanian to their Hungarian patients.

*Complete control upon religious denominations. If a priest or minister is very popular in the congregation, and keeps the church members together and active in an exemplary manner, he can count on a transfer, or discharge and even arrest The number of theology students and seminarians has been radically decreased in the last few years covering not more than 10% of vacant congregations by retirement and death. Studying abroad, a 400 year old Hungarian Protestant tradition, has become practically forbidden.

*The Hungarian character of certain regions of Transylvania, including the Szekely Land, is being destroyed by forced mass resettlements of Rumanians from the original Rumanian provinces of Moldavia and Wallachia into Transylvania Cities with overwhelmingly Hungarian population in the past, are now overwhelmingly Rumanian by resettlements of Rumanians and not permitting Hungarians to move in cities.

*Hungarian consciousness has been continuously attacked by disseminating government propaganda about the history of Transylvania which radically augments the minor Rumanian contributions to culture and science and belittle Hungarian and German ones which had been the major cultural accomplishment of the area. Distorting history by practically eliminating the one thousand year Hungarian past of Transylvania and replacing it with a few years of Rumanian occupation not only insults all Hungarians in Rumania, but also degrades
Rumanian historiography.
Anti­Hungarian teachings in schools, and publications of anti­Hungarian books supported or even encouraged by the Rumanian government occurs in a crass repudiation and violation of the Rumanian constitution which forbids any expression of chauvinism. Hungarians who complain against these insults of their nation are punished, Rumanian perpetrators of nationalistic agitation, go free.

*House searches, confiscation of Hungarian books, arrests, police brutality, beatings, torture causing even death, imprisonment without court order or judgement is the fate of many Hungarians in Transylvania whose only "crime" is to be Hungarian. A partial list of these unfortunate people which is included in one of the Hungarian­American memoranda to the conference, serves just as a reminder that violating of the most elemental human rights to be free, is the essence of governing in Rumania.

Distinguished Delegate! Hungarians in Rumania and Czechoslovakia have lived in the last two decades under a steadily increasing governmental pressure to be eliminated as a nation by forcible assimilation into the Rumanian and Czechoslovakian majorities. If the civilized world does not stop the denationalization process of over three million Hungarians in both countries, it does not compel their governments to reopen Hungarian schools on all three levels of education, a new generation of Hungarian youth will be growing up which will not be able to master his or her own mothertongue and a large part of the nation will cease to exist as Hungarian in the not too distant future.

As the undernourished, hungry people of the world must have ardently wished that the World Conference on Hunger a few years ago would stop their hunger, so wish the suppressed people, the non­Rumanian and non­Slovak inhabitants of Rumania and Czechoslovakia that the World Conference on Human Rights in Ottawa, be the turning point for the better in their hopeless life as a national minority. They ask for your concerted efforts to demand respecting their human rights, the freedom of promoting their own culture, teaching their children in their Hungarian schools in their own mothertongue, freely using their motherlanguage in public, freedom of organizing themselves and protecting their national interests and being free to preserve their national identity and as well as the national regions as autonomous territories.
May God give you the insight, understanding and strength to recognize the problem of national minorities and act upon it will full resolution for significant improvement of their precarious fate now and in the future.

God bless you for your efforts in that direction.

Respectfully yours,
Louis L. Lote
Committee of Transylvania, Inc.

P.S. All radio and television broadcasts in
Hungarian language are now discontinued in Rumania.
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