[Table of Contents] [Previous] [Next] [Bibliography] [HMK Home] Genocide in Transylvania



In 1948 the United Nations Ad Hoc Committee on Genocide accepted the following as a definition of one of the ways by which the crime of GENOCIDE may be committed:
"The systematic destruction of historical or religious monuments or their division to alien uses. Destruction or dispersion of historical, artistic, or religious values and objects."
The New World Dictionary defines genocide as "a program of action intended to destroy a national or ethnic group."
The actions of the government of the Socialist Republic of Rumania toward the Hungarian national minority of Transylvania correspond with both of these definitions. The most objective observer must admit that since 1974 the Rumanian government has embarked on and continuously increased their brutal course of destruction of the native Hungarian population of Transylvania.


1. "The sysytematic destruction of historical or religious monuments or their diversion to alien uses. Destruction or dispersion of historical, artistic, or religious values and objects." (U.N. Ad Hoc Committee on Genocide, 1948.)
As previously reported, many ancient Hungarian educational institutions in Transylvania were confiscated and closed down by the Ceausescu government; libraries, archives, museums were destroyed; the use of the Hungarian language banished from all public places; history rewritten, historical markers, monuments, landmarks, even old tombstones destroyed. Famous relics such as artistically handcarved and painted Hungarian farm gates (Szekelykapu) and the old totem­pole­like gravemarkers (Kopjafa­javelin) are being burned by the hundreds in order to eliminate the traditional Hungarian character of the Transylvanian landscape. Hungarian children from the age of three are being forced into the Rumanian institutions where they are forced, through beatings and other intimidations, to call themselves "good little Rumanians," abandon their mother tongue, and deny their Hungarian heritage. Hungarian language schools are being systematically closed down and taken over. Hungarian educators, clergymen and other intellectuals are being ruthlessly persecuted, beaten to death or driven to suicide.

2. "Genocide ­ a program of action intended to destroy a national or ethnic group." (New World Dictionary).
The Hungarians of Transylvania, close to three million strong, are the native inhabitants of that land, which was for more than 1,000 years part of the Hungarian Kingdom and the eastern­most citadel of the Western Christian civilization. Transylvania is the land where in the sixteenth century the Hungarian Congress declared the FREEDOM OF RELIGION, many years before any other country on the face of the Earth.
Therefore, the Hungarians living today in Rumanian occupied Transylvania, as a sad result of two World Wars, cannot be regarded as immigrants or foreigners. They are part of a nation still located in its ancestral homeland, the Carpathian Basin, but thrown into the role of an ethnic minority as a result of global wars.
The "program of action intended to destroy" the Hungarians in Transylvania is no secret. It was openly expressed by Rumanian dictator Ceausescu on several occasions assuring his audiences that "Rumania belongs to the Rumanians alone" and "all foreign elements must be absorbed or eliminated." This program of "absorption or elimination" has been implemented over the last seven years in the most barbaric manner by all governmental agencies, most of all by the dreaded SECURITATE.
Religions, cultural, and political leaders of the Transylvanian Hungarians are constantly persecuted, imprisoned, beaten to death or driven to suicide. During the last two years 28 clergymen, 8 writers and artists, 29 educators, and 17 other Hungarian intellectuals were eliminated one way or another. Among these, international attention was focused on minority­leader Karoly Kiraly, as well as professors Zsufka, Szikszai, Kuthy, and Sima.
Entire Hungarian villages and sections of cities are constantly being evacuated and the Hungarian inhabitants moved into Rumania proper, where they are scattered into different locations, mostly labor camps. Recently, the Hungarian population of the famous "Hostat" in Kolozsvar (Cluj­Napoca), three entire villages in the Kalotaszeg region, more than half of the Hungarian population of Torda (Turda), Nagyenyed (Aiud), Nagyvarad (Oradea), and Brasso Brasov) were moved from their homes and transported into other parts of the country.
Rumanians or Romania proper are moved into the evacuated Hungarian villages and towns. They are given special privileges, to the detriment of those native Hungarians who escaped evacuation and are still tolerated in their homeland. These Hungarians will be employed in better paid jobs and receive adequate food and clothing only if they denounce their Hungarian origin and declare themselves Rumanians.
Hungarian children forced to attend Rumanian educational institutions from kindergarten on are under severe pressure, even exposed to beatings to force them to denounce their cultural heritage and declare themselves "good little Rumanians." They are strictly forbidden the use of their language and their Hungarian parents are constantly referred to as "bums," "foreigners," "vagrants," "parasites," and other derogatory names.

Grievances and Legitimate Demands of the Native Hungarian Population of Transylvania

October, 1979

Today, at the end of the 20th century, civilized societies under majority rule firmly believe that such rule should not infringe upon the rights of minority groups.
On the authority of the Human Rights Proclamation of the United Nations these rights include:
Each individual's right to equal education, equal job opportunity for equal pay, equal housing, welfare and protection under the law.
Each individual's right to free worship in the church of his choice.
Each individual's right to speak his own language, to keep and develop his ethnic cultural heritage, to keep and develop his ethnic identity without interference from the ruling majority.
Each individual's right to live within his own ethnic group, and the right of this group to self­administration.

The Socialist Republic of Rumania is found in flagrant violation of each of these basic human rights in regard to the Hungarian minority.

1. Hungarian districts, Hungarian cities, townships and villages are denied self­administration.
2. Hungarian schools are eliminated step by step.
3. The public use of the Hungarian language is forbidden.
4. The publication of Hungarian literary and professional books, journals and periodicals are severely restricted.
5. The Hungarian Churches are under constant harassment. Archives, libraries and museums are confiscated.
6. Hungarian children are brutally beaten and punished for speaking their own language on the school grounds. Hungarian teachers are intimidated, arrested, tortured and even beaten to death.
7 Hungarian cemeteries are desecrated, torn up, tombstones removed, and turned into new Rumanian cemeteries in order to eradicate every trace of a Hungarian past.
8. Aid packages. including Bibles, are confiscated. Welfare donations sent from overseas to Hungarian churches in Transylvania. whether they serve the purpose of renovations or to relieve the needs caused by flood, earthquake and other catastrophes, are constantly redirected by the Rumanian authorities into other parts of the country and distributed among Rumanians only.
9. Hungarians are discriminated against in the fields of education, jobs, housing, welfare, and every other aspect of human existence.
10. Hungarians in Transylvania live under constant harassment and gross intimidation from teachers, officials, administrators, police and military personnel, with the purpose of forcing them to change their names, and declare themselves Rumanians.
11. Hungarians are constantly moved out of their homes under various pretexts, and resettled into new and foreign environments, while their homes are given to Rumanians, brought over from Rumania proper, in order to "de­Hungarize" the Hungarian­inhabited regions of Transylvania.
12. Whenever the Rumanian government establishes a new industry in a Hungarian region, the jobs in that industry are not offered to the local population, but Rumanians are imported for this purpose and settled in homes confiscated from Hungarians, who are deported into Rumania proper in order to make a place for the new settlers.
13. Relatives and friends of Hungarians visiting from the West are under daily harassments by Rumanian authorities, and after their departure those whom they visited are often taken to the police station for lengthy interrogations and abuses.
14. Hungarians are allowed to participate in sports only if they change their names, and declare themselves Rumanians.
15. Those students who graduate from one of the very few schools left where the language of instruction is still Hungarian are denied entrance into Universities.

Since each and every one of these grieveances not only conflicts with the Human Rights Proclamation of the United Nations, and with Articles VII and VIII of the Helsinki Agreement, but are in flagrant violation of the Peace Treaties signed by Rumania as well as the very constitution of the Socialist Republic of Rumania, it has become necessary that the rightful demands of Transylvanian people be brought to the attention of the civilized World, as follows:

1. The recognition of the Hungarian language in Transylvania as the second official language.
2. The establishment of two or more Hungarian Autonomous Regions under strictly Hungarian administration. Cities and townships with Hungarian majority must also have their own Hungarian administration, including police force.
3. The re­establishment of all Hungarian educational institutions, including the Hungarian universities of Kolozsvar and Marosvasarhely.
4. The return of all confiscated archives. libraries and museums.
5 The re­establishment of Hungarian cultural organizations, literary societies,
literary and professional publications, publishing houses.
6. The re­establishment of the freedom of the churches and church­related organizations.
7. The return of old Hungarian cemeteries under the care and authority of the Hungarian churches and cultural organizations.
8. Au signs and markers in Hungarian­populated cities, towns and villages must be bilingual.
9. Those Hungarians who were deported from their native environment or have moved from their homes under duress, shall be allowed to return home and be employed there. Rumanians, who were moved into Hungarian towns and villages with the purpose of diluting the Hungarian character of the area or filling the better paying jobs at the expense of the native Hungarian population must be returned into their own provinces.
10. Equal opportunity in every field of human existence, including the termination of job­fiscrimination.
11. The termination of all harassments and intimidations in relation to nationality. This includes census, postal service, transportation and welfare as well as the treatment of visitors from foreign countries, and the treatment of those persons who receive these visitors.
12. Aid sent to individuals, churches or church­related organizations by individuals, churches or church­related organizations in foreign countries must be allowed to reach its destination, and serve the purpose it was donated for.


An Appeal


Your eloquent statements on the importance of morality in foreign policy have instilled a new hope in the approximately one million Hungarian­Americans throughout the United States. We wholeheartedly agree with your position that this nation "can not look away when a government tortures peopIe, or jails them for their beliefs or denies minorities fair treatment." (Speech to National Convention of B'nai B'rith, September 8,1976). All too often over the past years our leaders have, as you said, "rationalized that there is little room for morality in foreign affairs" and have placed a higher value on commercial and political considerations. In contrast to this trend, you have not only expressed the need for our country to restore a healthy respect for fundamental human rights, but you have pointed out the means, United States trade policy, for achieving this end. We applaud the position which you summed up in the following manner: "If other nations want our friendship and support, they must understand that we want to see basic human rights respected, and this includes the rights of Hungarians where they may be." (Cablegram to Hungarian organizations, October 23, 1976).
Our purpose now is to call your attention to a concrete and specific opportunity for implementing the ideals you have espoused. Rumania is one country which, by any definition of the phrase, "denies minorities fair treatment." The dictator of that country, Nicolai Ceausescu, is currently waging a systematic and increasingly aggressive campaign of forceful assimilation against the 2.8 million native Hungarian inhabitants of Rumania. The principal elements of this brazen assault consist of falsification of population statistics; gross discrimination in the field of education; dissolution of compact minority communities and dispersion of ethnic professionals; curtailment of cultural opportunities for minorities; refusal to permit bilingualism; falsification of history; confiscation of ethnic church archives; obstruction of contacts with relatives abroad; and persecution of minority religious institutions. Each of these abusive measures is fully documented in the material attached to this memorandum.
As President of the United States, you will have several means at your disposal to exert pressure on the Rumanian Government to reverse this policy of oppression. Your Administration will, as a matter of course, be making contacts with representatives of the Rumanian Government. We appeal to you, and those representing you, to use the opportunity offered by such meetings to express a serious concern for the fate of the Hungarian minority in Rumania.
We are certain that your firm stand on basic moral principles will restore the prestige of this nation, and we pray that God gives you the strength, the wisdom and the clear sight needed to fulfill this great mission.

Hungarian­Americans in defense of human rights.

October, 1979

To the Congress of the United States:

Do Not Renew Preferred Nation Status to Rumania Until at Least the Following Demands Are Met:
1. The recognition of the Hungarian language in Transylvania as second official language.
2. The re~stablishment of the Hungarian Autonomous Regions under strictly Hungarian administration.
3. The re­establishment of all Hungarian educational institutions.
4. The return of all confiscated libraries, archives and museums.
5 The return of old Hungarian cemeteries under the care of the Hungarian churches.
6. The termination of job discrimination.
7. The termination of all harassments and intimidations in relation to nationality.

These demands are the basic minimum the native population of Transylvania can expect in a civilized world!

October 1979

Signed by:

American Hungarian Federation, Washington, D.C.
American Hungarian Federation, Los Angeles Chapter.
American Hungarian Federation, Pennsylvania Chapter.
American Hungarian Federation, S. Florida Chapter.
American Hungarian Baptist Church, California.
American Hungarian Reformed Church, Phoenix, Arizona.
American Hungarian Literary Guild, Astor, Florida.
American Hungarian Society, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Arpad Academy, Cleveland, Ohio.
Citizens Club of Ontario, California.
Col. M. Kovats Historical Society, New York, N.Y.
Committee of Hungarian Churches, Pittsburgh, Pa.
Human Rights Committee, Los Angeles, Calif.
Hungarian Reformed Fed. of America, Washington, D.C.
Hungarian Cultural Foundation, Atlanta, Georgia.
Hungarian Freedom Fighter Movement, Cleveland, Ohio.
Hungarian Unity Association, New York, N.Y.
Hungarian Fraternal Society, Colorado Springs, Colorado.
Hungarian Freedom Fighter Federation, Los Angeles, Calif.
Hungarian Minority Institution, Cleveland, Ohio.
Hungarian Engineer's Association in the USA.
Hungarian Mindszenty Movement, New York.
Hungarian Order of the Vitez in the USA.
Hungarian Americans of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii.
Hungarian Veterans Association, Buffalo, N.Y.
Hungarian Melodies Radio Club, Hollywood, California.
Hungarian Californian's Fraternal Assoc. Los Angeles.
Hungarian Society of Richmond, Virginia.
Hungarian Dancer's Association, Los Angeles Hungarian American Rifle Association, Garfield, N.J.
Hungarian American Student's Association, New York, N.Y.
Hungarian American Federation of California, Los Angeles.
Hungarian American Federation of San Francisco.
Hungarian Catholic Association of St. Stephen, Pasadena, Calif.
Hungarian Catholic Ladies' Circle, California.
Polish­Hungarian World Federation and Affiliated Organizations.
St. Stephen Society, San Francisco, California.
Western Michigan Care Club, Grand Rapids, Mich.
Hungarian Reformed Church of Ontario, California.
Hungarian Reformed Church of Hollywood, California.
Hungarian Reformed Church of the San Fernando Valley.
Kalocsa Dance Group, Ohio.
Korosi Csoma Historical Society, Phoenix, Arizona.
Napnyugat Literary Circle, Los Angeles.
Transylvanian World Federation, Indiana Branch.
Transylvanian World Federation, Buffalo Branch.
Transylvanian World Federation, Detroit Branch,
Transylvanian World Federation, South California Branch.
Transylvanian World Federation, N. California Branch.
Transylvanian World Federation, Kolozsvar Chapter, Washington, D.C.
Transylvanian World Fed. Ladies Auxiliary, Los Angeles. Transylvanian World Fed. Ladies Auxiliary, Washington, D.C.
Transylvanian World Federation, Pennsylvania Chapter.
Transylvanian World Federation, Santa Monica Chapter.
Transylvanian World Federation, Central Florida Chapter.
Transylvanian World Federation, New York Chapter.
'Iransylvanian World Federation, Cleveland Chapter.
Transylvanian World Federation, Missouri Chapter.
Transylvanian World Federation, Connecticut Chapter.
Transylvanian World Federation, Wisconsin Chapter.
Transylvanian World Federation, Georgia Chapter

Does Rumanian Deserve to be "Preferred Nation?"

April, 1980

It seems that our President, as well as the majority of our Congress, feels that the communist government of Rumania deserves special considerations reserved only to nations friendly toward the United States of America, and useful as political allies. This decision is based on two suppositions, both of which are erroneous, resulting from an intense propaganda campaign on one side, and the lack of correct information on the other.
One of the false concepts is that Rumania must be rewarded by special economic aid, because the pre­Worid War II Rumanian Kingdom did most of its importing from the USA "in spite of Nazi pressure".
According to the "Statistische Jahrbucher" the Rumanian import from Hitler's Germany, between 1935 and 1939 averaged 51.6% of the total, while only 19.8% of the goods entering Rumania in those years came from the USA.
In addition to full economic support, Rumania also pledged unconditional military support to Nazi Germany, instead of following the line of passive resistance displayed by Poland and Czechoslovakia or that of active resistance exhibited by Yugoslavia. This Rumanian eagerness to be on the "winning" German side put Hungary in a dangerous position. Nevertheless, the Hungarian government was still able to keep its neutrality much longer and to enter the war only on a limited basis when finally yielding to the German pressure. Only after the Western Powers refused to accept the Hungarian offer of turning against Germany for the price of American or British occupation instead of Russian invasion did Hungary begin to fight full force for its survival, unfortunately much too late. By that time the Rumanians, Hitler's staunch allies, joined up with the Russians and invaded Hungary under the protection of Russian tanks, looting, raping. ravaging, and killing thousands of innocent people.
Another frequently used argument is that "Rumania is trying to break away from the Soviet block and become 'West­oriented'." This view is completely false and is based on the misapprehension of the communist doctrine on one hand, and lack of knowledge concerning Rumanian political aims and methods.
During its very short, 102 years of history, Rumania has furnished ample proof that contracts, treaties, agreements, commitments, political, social or economic obligations, no matter how pompously agreed to and signed, have no practical value, and can be shrugged off any time.
Before World War I, in order to receive financial aid, Rumania signed a mutual defense pact with Austria­Hungary, apparently aimed against Russia. However, as soon as Russia attacked, Rumania turned against its allies, and joined Russia. For this, the Rumanians were rewarded with the annexation of 'Transylvania. As soon as the shadow of a strong and aggressive Nazi­Germany fell upon the continent, Rumania turned again about face, and joined up with the new "bully" on the block, abandoning its former friends and allies, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia. Then after enthusiastically supporting Germany in its conquering thrust into Russia, when the tables were turned and the Russian troops entered Rumania on the tail of the retreating Wehrmacht, Rumania turned coats again. Invading Hungary once more, this time safely behind the advancing Red Army, the Rumanians staged such a blood bath among the Hungarians in Transylvania that in many recorded instances the Russian military authorities had to interfere on behalf of the civilian population.
The Rumanians resented Russian interference into their "internal affairs", meaning the persecution of the Hungarian peasantry. From here on, Rumania was ready to change sides again, but in a manner of course, which would not jeopardize her good standing in the communist camp. Careful side­glances toward China and the USA began to be implemented, with the purpose of aggravating the Russians just enough to gain some concessions but not enough to make them angry.
Anyone who believes that communist Rumania, under its nationalcommunist leader, Ceausescu, can ever become a true friend and ally of this country, does not understand communist doctrine and the philosophy deriving from this doctrine.
The main goal of the Rumanian government today is the liquidation of the native Hungarian population of Tranyslvania by the use of any available means. The reason for this goal is to secure this extremely rich territory, conquered and annexed by force and deceit, for future generations of Rumanian settlers imported day by day from across the Carpathians and relocated into Transylvanian towns and villages from where the native Hungarians were forcibly removed one way or another.
There is a well planned ethnocide going on today in Rumania. Those who aid the Rumanian government in any way, accept and legitimize oppression, discrimination, and the extermination of three million Hungarians.
outlined in the constitution of the Socialist Republic of Rumania, the peace treaties and the Helsinki Agreement. If you see a murder being committed, and instead of helping the victim you aid the murderer: don't you yourself become responsible for the crime?


The Transylvanian World Federation

 [Table of Contents] [Previous] [Next] [Bibliography] [HMK Home] Genocide in Transylvania