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[1.]. Oszkar Jaszi, A nemzeti allamok kialakulasa es a nemzetisegi kerdes [The Evolution of the Nation States and the Nationality Question] (Budapest: 1912), p. 349. Hereafter cited as A nemzeti allamok kialakulasa.

[2.]. Robert William Seton Watson, A History of the Czechs and Slovaks (New York: Hutchinson and Co., 1943), p. 278.

[3.]. Victor S. Mamatey, The United States and East Central Europe 1914-1918 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1957), p. 16.

[4.]. Milan Hodza, Kozepeuropa orszagutjan [On the Highway of Central Europe] (Bratislava, Eugen Prager, 1938), p. 29.

[5.] Matyas Unger and Otto Szabolcs, Magyarorszag tortenete [The History of Hungary] (Budapest: Gondolat, 1965), pp. 256-258.

[6.]. Erzsebet Andics, (ed.), A Magyar nacionalizmus kialakulasa es tortenete [The History and Development of Hungarian Nationalism] (Budapest: Kossuth, 1964), p. 180. Hereafter cited as A Magyar nacionalizmus.

[7.]. Regina Donath, A Tisza Istvan elleni 1912-i merenylet a hirlapirodalom tukreben [The Attempt Against the Life of Istvan Tisza as Seen through the Journals] (Budapest: 1935), p.5.

[8.]. Aladar Mod, 400 ev kuzdelem az onallo Magyarorszagert [Four Hundred Years of Stuggle for Independent Hungary] (Budapest: Szikra, 1951), p. 367; Laszlo Remete, Barikadok Budapest utcain 1912 [Barricades on the Streets of Budapest1912] (Budapest: Kossuth, 1972), pp. 271-273.

[9.]. Donath, op.cit., pp. 11-13.

[10.]. Ibid., pp. 92-96.

[11.]. Oscar Halecki, Borderlands of Western Europe: History of Eastern Europe (New York: Ronald Press, 1952), p. 353.

[12.]. Joachim Remak, Sarajevo (New York: Criterion Books, 1959), pp. 33-34.

[13.]. as quoted by Mod, op.cit., p. 263.

[14.]. Norman Stone, "Hungary and the Crisis of July 1914," Journal of Contemporary History, III (1967), 159.

[15.]. Gusztav Gratz, A dualizmus kora [The Age of Dualism] (Budapest: Magyar Szemle, 1934),II, 298.

[16.]. Michael Karolyi, Memoirs of Michael Karolyi, Faith Without Illusion (New York: E.P. Dutton, l957), p. 47. Hereafter cited as Memoirs.

[17.]. Lajos Kossuth, Valogatott munkai, [Selected Works] (Budapest: Lampel Robert, 190?), p. 252.

[18.]. Archives of the Department of State Relating to Internal Affairs of Austria-Hungary, file no. 864.00. National Archives. Hereafter cited as Papers on Internal Affairs of Austria-Hungary. Mihaly Karolyi, Egy egesz vilag ellen [Against the Entire World] (Budapest: Gondolat, 1965), pp. 77-88.

[19.]. Oscar Jaszi, The Dissolution of the Hapsburg Monarchy (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1961), p. 364. Hereafter cited as The Dissolution .

[20.]. Luigi Albertini. The Origins of the War of 1974 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1957),II, 127.

[21.]. Karolyi, Egy egesz vilag ellen, p. 138.

[22.]. Zsuzsa L. Nagy and Andras Zsilak, (eds.), Otven ev. A Nagy Oktober es a Magyarorszagi forradalmak. Tanulmanyok [Fifty Years. The Great October Revolution and the Hungarian Revolutions. Essays] (Budapest: Akademiai Kiado, 1967), p. 125.

[23.]. Ibid., p. 118.

[24.]. Ibid., p. 119.

[25.]. Tibor Hajdu, Az Oszirozsas Forradalom [The Frostflower Revolution] (Budapest: Kossuth, 1963), pp. 30-35. Also, Tihor Szamuely, A Kommunistak Magyarorszagi Partjanak megalakulasa es harca a proletardiktaturaert [The Organization and Fight of the Hungarian Party of Communists for the Proletarian Dictatorship] (Budapest: Kossuth, 1964), pp. 57-72.

[26.]. John Reed, The War in Eastern Europe (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. l919), p. 84.

[27.]. Jozsef Kristoffy, A kiralysagtol a kommunizmusig [From Monarchy to Communism] (Budapest: Kultura, 1920), p. 75.

[28.]. Leo Viliani, "Italian-Austro-Hungarian Negotiations in 1914-1915," Journal of Contemporary History, III, (1967), 113.

[29.]. Istvan Tisza, Osszes Munkai [Collected Works] (Budapest: Franklin Tarsulat, 1926), III, pp. 365-366; also in Victor Regnier (ed.), Lettres de guerre 1914-1916 (Paris: Les Oeuvres Representatives, 1931), p. 184.

[30.]. Ivo J. Lederer, Yugoslavia at the Paris Peace Conference (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1963), p. 23.

[31.]. Thomas Garrigue Masaryk, The Making of a State (New York: F.A. Stokes Company, 1927), p. 96.

[32.]. Zoltan Szviezsenyi, Hogyan veszett el a Felvidek? [How Was Ruthenia Lost?] (Budapest: Franklin Tarsulat, 1921), p. 64; also in Harrison Thomson, Czechoslovakia in European History (Hamden: Archon Books, 1965), p. 307.

[33.]. The New York Times, August 29, 1916, 1:7.

[34.]. United States Department of State, Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States. The World War 1917. Hereafter cited as FRUS-WW 1917 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1933), Supplement I, p. 8.

[35.]. Alexander Dallin, et.al., Russian Diplomacy and Eastern Europe 1914-1917 (New York: King's Crown, 1963), p. 80.

[36.]. Ray Stannard Baker and William E. Dodd (eds.), The Public Papers of Woodrow Wilson (New York: Harper and Bros., 1927), I, 132-135.

[37.]. United States Department of State, Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States: The World War 1918 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1933), Supplement 1, I, 9. Hereafter cited as FRUS-WW 1918.

[38.]. Ibid., pp. 29-30.

[39.]. Arthur J. May, The Passing of the Hapsburg Monarchy 1914-1918 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1964), II, 684. Hereafter cited as Hapsburg Monarchy .

[40.]. Karolyi, Egy egesz vilag ellen, p. 157.

[41.]. Mod, op.cit., p. 388.

[42.]. as quoted in May. Hapsburg Monarchy, II, p. 694.

[43.]. Revai Nagy Lexikona, "A valasztojog tortenete" ll he history of Franchise Laws] XVIII, Tarjan-Var 732-33, (Budapest: 1925); Pal Schonwald, A magyarorszagi 1918-1919-es polgari demokratikus forradalom allam es jogtorteneti kerdesei [The Constitutional and Legal Questions of the Bourgeois-Democratic Revolution of 1918-1919] (Budapest: Akademial Kiado. 1969), pp. 242-243.


[1.]. C. A. Macartney and A.W. Palmer, Independent Eastern Europe, A History (New York: St. .Martin's Press, 1966), p. 84.

[2.]. Victor S. Mamatey, The United States and East Central Europe 1914-1918. A Study of Wilsonian Diplomacy and Propaganda (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1957), p. 243.

[3.]. Robert L. Lansing, War Memoirs of Robert Lansing (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1935), pp. 269 ff.

[4.]. as quoted in Mamatey, op.cit., p. 269; Joseph P. O'Grady (ed.), The Immigrants' Inftuence on Wilson's Peace Policies (Lexington, Ky.: University of Kentucky Press, 1967), p. 166.

[5.]. James R. Mock and Cedric Larson, Words that Won the War. The Story of the Committee on Public Information 1917-1919 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1938), p. 230.

[6.]. Ibid., p. 306.

[7.]. L. Nagy and Zsilak, op.cit., p. 206.

[8.]. Emma Ivanyi (ed.), Magyar minisztertanicsi jergyzokonyvek az Elso Vilaghaboru korabol [Minutes of the Council of Ministers from the Era of World War One] (Budapest: Akademiai Kiado, 1960), p. 398; Jozsef Lengyel, Visegradi utca in Lengyel Jozsef osszegyujtott munkai [Visegradi Street in the Collected Works of Jozsef Lengyel] (Budapest: Szepirodalmi Konyvkiado, 1966), p. 74; Marton Farkas, Katonai osszeomlas es forradalom 1918-ban [Military Collapse and Revolution in 1918] (Budapest: Akadetmiai Kiado, 1969), pp. 119-121.

[9.]. Belane Kun, Mrs., Kun Bela (Emlekezesek) [Bela Kun, Memoirs] (Budapest: Magveto, 1966), p. 75

[10.]. Hajdu, Az Oszirozsas Forradalom, p. 48.

[11.]. United States Department of State, Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United Slates: Russia (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1932), II, 131. Hereafter cited as FRUS-Russia.

[12.]. C.K. Cumming and Walter W. Pettit, (eds.), Russian-American Relations March 1917-March 1920, Documents and Papers (New York: Harcourt, Brace and Howe, 1920), pp. 177-188.

[13.]. Ray Stannard Baker, Woodrow Wilson, Life and Letters (Garden City: Doubleday, Page and Co., 1939), VIII, 389.

[14.]. Lawrence E. Gelfand, The Inquiry, American Prepararions for Peace, 1917-1919 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1963), p. 212.

[15.]. United States Department of State. FRUS-WW 1918, Supplement 1,I, 816.

[16.]. as quoted in Macartney and Palmer, op.cit., p. 85.

[17.]. Great Britain, Foreign Office, "Alleged negotiations between Count Karolyi and Baron Sonnino in Switzerland." 3une ll, 1918, 371/3136, Public Record Office, London. Hereafter cited as F.O.

[18.]. United States Department of State, FRUS-Russia, II, 254-255.

[19.]. "Robert Cecil's Conversation with Benes," May 18, l9l8, F.O. 371-3443.

[20.]. Great Britain, War Office, "The Czecho-Slovak Army in Siberia, by Dr. Benes," August 15, 1918, 106/684, Public Records Office, London. Hereafter cited as W. O. Estimates of the number of Hungarians fighting in the Russian civil war quote 100,000 officers and soldiers. See Rudolf L. Tokes, Bela Kun and the Hungarian Soviet Republic (New York: Praeger, 1967), p. 70.

[21.]. "The History of the Czecho-Slovak Army in Russia," September 9, 1918, W.O. 106/683.

[22.]. United States Department of State, FRUS The Lansing Papers 1914-1920, II, 382.

[23.]. Mock and Larson, op.cit., p. 231.

[24.]. See page 21.

[25.]. Karolyi, Egy egesz vilag ellen, p. 87.

[26.]. Karolyi, Memoirs, p. 138.

[27.]. Ibid., p. 199; Hugh R. Wilson, Diplomat between Wars (New York: Longmans, Green and Co., 1941), p. 41; United States Department of State, FRUS-WW 1917, Supplement 2, I, 322-325.

[28.]. Sir H. Rumbold to Lord Bertie, December 7 (?) 1917, F. O. 800/161.

[29.]. Memorandum of Edward Drummond to Foreign Office, December 10, 1917, F.O. 800/200.

[30.]. United States Department of State, FRUS-WW 1918, Supplement 1, I, 341.

[31.]. Mihalyne Karolyi, Mrs., Egyutt a forradalomban Emlekezesek [Together in the Revolution, Memoirs] (Budapest: Europa Konyvkiadd, 1967), p. 261.

[32.]. United States Department of State, FRUS-WW 1918, Supplement 1, I, 367.

[33.]. Karolyi, Egy egesz vilg ellen, p. 327.

[34.]. United States Department of State, FRUS-1918, Supplement l, I, 368.

[35.]. Magyar Kepviselohaz, Kepviselohazi Naplo [Diary of the House of Representatives] (Budapest: 1918), XLI, 276-284.

[36.]. Ibid., pp. 294-295.

[37.]. Jozsef Breit Doberdoi, A magyarorszagi 1918-1919 evi forradalmak es a voros haboru tortenete [The History of the Revolutionary Movements of 1918-1919 and the Red War] (Budapest: Magyar Kiralyi Leveltar, 1925),I, p. 15.

[38.]. Magyar Szocialista Munkaspart Kozponti Bizottsaganak Parttorteneti Intezete, A Magyar munkasmozgalom tortetnetetnek valogatott dokumentumai [Selected Documents to the History of the Hungarian Labor Movement] (Budapest: Kossuth, 1956), V, 266, hereafter cited as MMTVD: Katrolyi, Az egesz vilag ellen, pp. 352-354.

[39.]. Karolyi, Memoirs, p. 106; Hajdu, Az Oszirozsas Forradalom, pp. 90-91.

[40.]. Arpad Szelpal, Les 133 jours de Bela Kun (Paris: Artheme Fayard, 1959), p. 24.

[41.]. Gusztav Gratz, A forradalmak kora [The Age of Revolutions] (Budapest: Magyar Szemle Tarsasag, 1935), p. 17.

[42.]. Ibid., p. 17.

[43.]. Ibid., p. 18; Oszkar Gellert, (ed.), A diadalmas forradalom konyve [The Book of the Glorious Revolution ] (Budapest: Legradi, 1918), p. 171

[44.]. Tibor Szamuely, op.cit.; p. 115. Farkas, op.cit., p. 337.

[45.]. Sandor Juhasz Nagy, A Magyar Oktoberi Forradalom tortenete [The History of the Hungarian October Revolution] (Budapest: Cserepfalvi, 1945), p. 222.

[46.]. Gratz, A forradalmak kora, p. 18.

[47.]. Karolyi, Memoirs, p. 118.

[48.]. Oscar Jaszi, Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Hungary (London: S. King and Son, 1924), p. 32. Hereafter cited as Revolution and Counter-Revolution.

[49.]. Empress Zita later claimed that Charles did order Lukachich to resist. See Gordon Brook-Shepherd, The Last Habsburg (New York: Weybright and Talley, 1968), p. 189.

[50.]. Hajdu, Az Oszirozsas Forradalom, pp. 1 70-174; Karolyi, Az egesz vilag ellen, pp. 370-397; Karolyine, (Mrs.), op.cit., p. 282.

[51.]. Erno Garami, Forrongo Magyarorszag [Seditious Hungary] (Leipzig: Pegazus, 1922), p. 30.


[1.]. Arno Mayer, Politics and Diplomacy of Peacemaking: Containment and Counterrevolution at Versailles, 1918-1919 (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1967), p. 524, hereafter cited as Politicsand Diplomacy; Szamuely, op.cit., p. 157.

[2.]. Gyula Hevesi, Egy mernok a forradalomban [An Engineer in the Revolution (Budapest: Europa Kk.,1959), p. 171.

[3.]. The existence of dual authority and its close parallel with the Russian situation is claimed by Tibor Hajdu, Tanacsok Magyarorszagon 1918-1919-ben [Councils in Hungary in 1918-1919] (Budapest: Kossuth, 1958), p. 41 and Tokes, op.cit., p. 8g Elek Bolgar, Valogatott tanulmanyok [Selected Essays] (Budapest: Kossuth, 1958), p. 172 and Ferenc Harrer, Egy Magyar Polgar Elete [The Life of a Hungarian Bourgeois] (Budapest: Gondolat, 1968), p. 357 disagree and affirm that the problem of dual authority did not exist in Hungary.

[4.]. Jolan Kellen and Gyula Barabas, A Neptribun Fejezetek Bokanyi Dezso eletebol [The People's Tribunal--Chapters from the Life of Dezso Bokanyi] (Budapest: Kossuth,1964), p. 201.

[5.]. MMTVD, V, pp. 319 and 402.

[6.]. Jaszi, Revolution and Counter-Revolution, p. 3; Gyula Merei, A magyar oktoberi forradalom es a polgari partok [The Hungarian Revolution of October and the Bourgeois Parties] (Budapest: Akademiai Kiado, 1969), pp. 20-21.

[7.]. Andics, A magyar nacionalizmus, p. 243; Lee Congdon, "History and Politics in Hungary: The Rehabilitation of Oszkar Jaszi," East European Quarterly, IX, No. 3, 315-318.

[8.]. Oszkar Jaszi, A nemzeti allamok kialakulasa, p. 3.

[9.]. Ibid., p. 497; Gabor Vermes, "The Agony of Federalism in Hungary under the Karolyi Regime, 1918/1919," EastEuropean Quarterly, VI, No. 4, 490.

[10.]. Bela K. Kiraly, ' The Danubian Problem in Oscar Jaszi's Political Thought," The Hungarian Quarterly, V (April-June, 1965), 127-129.

[11.].Ibid., p. 134.

[12.]. Jaszi, Revolution and Counter-Revolution. p. 38.

[13.]. "Extract from the Matin 5 Novembre 1918," F.O. 371/3136; for a similar declaration of the Czecho-Slovak National Council see November 7. 1919, F.O. 371 /3134. Jeno Horvath , Magyarorszag es a nemzetsegi kerdes, 1815-1920 [Hungary and the Nationality Question, 1815-1920] (Budapest: Pfeifer 1920), p. 80.

[14.]. Great Britain, Foreign Office, May 21, 1921, F.O. 800/155.

[15.]. as quoted in L:iszlo K6vago, 4 mag~>arorszagi delszlivok 1918-1919-hen [The South Slavs of Hungary in 1918-19191 (Budapest: Akademiai Kiado, 1964), p. 70.

[16.]. For a critical appraisal see Mayer, Politics and Diplomacy, pp.525-526.

[17.]. as quoted in Ferenc Gondor. Vallomasok konyve [Book of Confessions] (Vienna: A szerzo kiadasa, 1922), p.53.

[18.]. Harrer, op.cit., p. 379.

[19.]. Szamuely, op.cit., pp. 178-179.

[20.]. Karolyi, Memoirs, pp. 128-129. Garami, op.cit., p. 39; Jaszi, Revolution and Counter-Revolution, pp. 51-52.

[21.]. Francis Deak, Hungary at the Paris Peace Conference. The Diplomatic History of the Treaty of Trianon (New York: Columbia University Press, 1942), p. 9.

[22.]. Karolyi, Memoirs, p. 130.

[23.]. Dominic Kosary, A History of Hungary (Cleveland: Benjamin Franklin Bibliophile Society, 1941), p. 381.

[24.]. Szamuely, op.cit., p. 1 80.

[25.]. Ibid., p. 179.

[26.]. Juhasz Nagy, op.cit. , p. 297.

[27.]. Garami, op.cit., p. 36.

[28.]. E. Malcolrn Carroll, Soviet Communism and Western Opinion 1919-1921 (Chaptel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1965), pp. 12-14.

[29.]. Charles Seymour, Letters from the Paris Peace Conference (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1965), p. 132; James T. Shotwell, At the Paris Peace Conference (New York: Macmillan,1937), p. 108.

[30.]. Carroll, op.cit., p. 13.

[31.]. Robert K. Murray, Red Scare: A Study of National Hysteria, 1919-1920 (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964), pp. 94-95

[32.]. Comte de Saint-Aulaire, Confession d'un vieux diplomate (Paris: Flamarion, 1953), p. 483: the disproportionate Jewish participation in the revolution is attributed to Jewish "messianism" by Istvatn Deak, "Budapest and the Hungarian Revolutions of 1918-1919," in Slavonic and East European Review, Vol. XLVI (January 1968), 139.

[33.]. Rumbold to Balfour, January 4, l919, F.O. 371/3541; Ministere des Affaires Ftrangeres, Correspondance des Affaires Politiques, Compte Rendu, L'Agent 337-A, January 4, 1919, Hongrie, Vol. 27, Archives des Affaires Etrangeres. Hereafter cited as CAP.

[34.]. Following the rise of the Hungarian Soviet Republic, Varga became Commissar of Finance and Chairman of the Supreme Economic Council. He worked out directives for a planned economy that were utilized by Russian economists devising the First Five-Year Plan. Varga gained world-wide renown as the Director of the Institute of World Economics and World Politics of the Soviet Academy of Sciences (1927-1947).

[35.]. Karoly Meszaros, Az Oszirozsas forradalom es a Tanacskoztarsasag paraszt-politikaja [The Agricultural Policy of the Frostflower Revolution and of the Soviet Republic] (Budapest: Akademiai Kk., 1966), pp. 65-66. Vera Szemere, Az agrarkerdes 1918-1919-ben [TheAgrarian Question in 1918-1919] (Budapest: Kossuth 1963), p. 92.

[36.]. Oszkar Gellert, op.cit., p. 103.

[37.]. Mihaly Karolyi, Valogatott irasai [Selected Works] (Budapest: Gondolat, 1964), p. 29.

[38.]. Szamuely, op.cit., p. 168.

[39.]. Ibid., p. 179.

[40.]. Karolyi, Memoirs, p. 139.

[41.]. Juhasz Nagy, op.cit., p. 31.

[42.]. Karolyi, Memoirs, p. 144; For a brief history of the revolution, see Gabor Vermes, "The October Revolution in Hungary: from Karolyi to Kun," Hungary in Revolution, ed. Ivan Volgyes (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. 1971), pp. 31-60.


[1.]. Macartney and Palmer, op.cit., p. 92.

[2.]. Lederer, op.cit., pp. 41-43.

[3.]. Mamatey, op.cit., p. 339.

[4.]. Wenzel Jaksch, Europe's Road to Potsdam, translated by Kurt Glaser (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1963), p. 192; Mary Barbara Fuchs, The Problem of the Hungarian-Czechoslovak Frontier, November 3rd 1918 to November 15, 1920 (New York: Ph.D. dissertation at St. John's University, 1942), pp. 35-36.

[5.]. Stephen Bonsal, Suitors and Supplicants, The Little Nations at Versailles (New York: Prentice-Hall, 1946), p. 161.

[6.]. Jaksch, op.cit., p. 193.

[7.]. Michael Hodza, Federalism in Central Europe (London: Jarrolds Publishers, 1942), p. 72; Macartney and Palmer, op.cit., p. 93; for texts of the message and reply see Ivan Thurzo: O Martinskej deklaracii [The Martin Declaration] (Kniznica Miestneho odgoru Matice slovenskej v Martine, 1968), II, 75.

[8.]. FRUS-WW 1918, Supplement 1,I, 447.

[9.]. John E. Howard, Parliament and Foreign Policy in France (London: Cresset Press, 1948), p. 142.

[10.]. Journal des Debats, November 3 , 1918.

[11.]. Harry Hanak, Great Britain and Austria-Hungary during the First World War. A Study in the Forrmation of Public Opinion (London: Oxford University Press, 1962), p. 269; Arthur J. May, "R.W. Seton Watson and British Anti-Hapsburg Sentiment," in The American Slavic and East European Review, February 1961, XX, 53.

[12.]. The New Europe, October 31, 1918.

[13.]. Masaryk, op.cit., p. 82.

[14.]. Stefen Osusky, "The Secret Negotiations between Vienna and Washington," The Slavonic Review, IV (1926). 658; H.R. Wilson, op cit., p. 45; Masaryk, op.cit., pp. 305-306; O'Grady, op.cit, p. 167.

[15.]. Charles Seymour, (ed.), The Intimate Papers of Colonel House (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1928), IV. 198-199.

[16.]. FRUS-WW 1918, Supplement 1, I, 421.

[17.]. Ray Stannard Baker, (ed.), Woodrow Wilson, Life and Letters (New York: Doubleday, 1939), p.542.

[18.].Namier toTyrrell, November 11, 1918, F.O. 371/3134.

[19.]. Great Britain, War Cabinet, Minutes of Meeting, November 22, 1918, CAB 23-B, Public Record Office, London.

[20.]. N. Gordon Levin, Jr., Woodrow Wilson and World Politics: America's Response to War and Revolution (New York: Oxford University Press, 1968), p. 188.

[21.]. David F. Houston, Eight Years with Wilson's Cabinet (Garden City: Doubleday, 1926), pp. 321-324.

[22.]. FRUS-WW 1918, Supplement 1,I, 470.

[23.]. Walter Lippmann to Sidney Mezes, September 5, 1918, Mezes Mss., Columbia University Library.

[24.]. Rdsa Bedy-Schwimmer to Mihaly Karolyi, October 28, 1918, Roza Bedy-Schwimmer Papers, Box A 125, New York Public Library Manuscript Division, (Hereafter cited as Bedy-Schwimmer Papers); Roza Bedy-Schwimmer to Colonel House, November 3, 1918, Bedy-Schwimmer Papers, Box A 126; Vira B. Whitehouse, A Year as a Government Agent (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1920), p. 420.

[25.]. Rosa Bedy-Schwimmer to David Lloyd George, October 3, 1917, Rosika Schwimmer Papers, Box 1, Hoover Institution Archives; International Committee for World Peace Prize Award to Rosika Schwimmer, Rosika Schwimmer World Patriot (New York: 1938), p. 2; David Lloyd George, War Memoirs (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1933), I, 50; Burnet Hershey, The Odyssey of Henry Ford and the Great Peace Ship (New York: Taplinger Publishing Co., 1967), pp. 62-69.

[26.]. International Committee. . ., op.cit., p. 3.

[27.]. Whitehouse, op.cit., p. 238.

[28.]. The New York Times, November 26, 1915, p. 4.

[29.]. Seymour, Intimate Papers, II, p. 96; Mark Sullivan, Our Times, The United States (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1933), V, pp. 162-183.

[30.]. Whitehouse, op.cit., p. 251.

[31.]. Copies of Wilson's declaration in various languages are in Bedy-Schwimmer Papers, Box A 127; Whitehouse, op.cit., p. 261; Slovak language version printed in K. A. Medvecky, Slovensky Prevrat [Slovak Revolution] (Bratislava, 1931), Vol. IV, pp. 12-13. In this publication Bedy-Schwimmer was identified as a C.P.I. agent.

[32.]. FRUS-WW 1918, Supplement 1,I, p 474.

[33.]. MMTVD, V, 345; Pravda, November 3, 1918.

[34.]. Lengyel, op.cit., p. 76. (Budapest: Kossuth,1965), p. 37; Sarlo es Kalapacs (Moscow), March, 1932, p. 54.

[36.]. MMTVD, p. 345.

[37.]. Ibid., p. 363; Aladar Mdd, Valaszatak 1918-1919 [Alternatives, 1918-1919] (Budapest: Magveto, 1970), p. 173.

[38.]. Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, Lenin Magyarorszagrol [Lenin about Hungary] (Budapest: Kossuth, 1974); Laszlo Reti,Lenin es a magyar munkasmozgalom [Lenin and the Hungarian Labor Movement] (Budapest: Kossuth, 1970), p. 21; Erzsebet Andics, Munkaisosztaly es nemzet [Workingclass and Nation] (Budapest: Szikra, 1949), p. 83.

[39.]. Jakab Weltner, Forradalom, Bolsevizmus, Emigracio [ Revolution, Bolshevism, Emigration] (Budapest: Weltner, 1929), p. 69; Reti, op.cit., pp. 105-106.

[40.]. Weltner, op.cit., pp. 76-77.

[41.]. Mano Buchinger, Tanuvallomas: Az Oktoberi forradalom tragediaja [Testimony of a Witness: The Tragedy of the October Revolution] (Budapest: Nepszava, 1936), p. 82.

[42.]. The Times (London), November 5, 1916.

[43.]. George Bernard Noble, Policies and Opinions at Paris, 1919 (New York: The Macmillan Co., 1935), p. 12.

[44.]. Le Figaro, November 4, 1918.

[45.]. Le Temps, November 6, 1918.

[46.]. The likeness of British to American foreign policy toward Eastern Europe is described in Seth F. Tillman, Anglo-American Relations at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1961), pp. 210-216. For a recent Hungarian analysis of British policy toward Hungary, see: Lajos Arday, "Angol-Magyar viszony a polgari demokratikus forradalom idejen az angol leveltari forrasok tukreben" [English-Hungarian Relations during the Bourgeois Democratic Revolution as Reflected in English Archival Sources] Tortenelmi Szemle, 1975, XVIII, no. 2-3, 271.


[1.]. Jeno Horvath, A trianoni bekeszerzodes megalkotasa es a revizio utja [The Construction of the Peace Treaty of Trianon and the Course of Revision] (Budapest: Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia, 1937), p. 25. Hereafter cited as a revizio utja.

[2.]. Ibid., p. 8.

[3.]. Alfred D. Low, The Soviet Hungarian Republic and the Paris Peace Conference (Philadelphia: The American Philosophical Society, 1963), p. 13.

[4.]. Horvath, a revizid utja, p. 8.

[5.]. Otto Bauer, The Austrian Revolution (London: Leonard Parsons, 1925), p. 120; Mamatey, op.cit., p. 314.

[6.]. Lederer, op.cit., pp. 66-67; Zsuzsa L. Nagy, A parizsi bekekonferencia es Magyarorszag 1918-1919 [The Peace Conference of Paris and Hungary 1918-1919] (Budapest: Kossuth, 1965), p. 60.

[7.]. Lederer, op.cit., p. 57.

[8.]. Karolyi, Memoirs, p. 133; Mihaly Karolyi, Az uj Magyarorszagert [For the New Hungary] (Budapest: Magveto Konyvkiado, 1968), pp. 415417. Hereafter cited as Magyarorszagert.

[9.]. Bogdan Krizman, "The Belgrade Armistice of November 1918," Slavonic and East European Review, XLVIII (1970), No. 110, p. 76.

[10.]. Karalyi, Memoirs, p. 132.

[11.]. Lajos Hatvany, Urak, polgarok, parasztok [Lords, Citizens, Peasants (Budapest: Revaj, 1947), p. 106.

[12.]. Karolyi, Memoirs, p. 132; Jerome et Jean Tharaud, Quand lsrael est roi (Paris: Plon, 1921), pp. 155-157.

[13.]. Garami, op.cit., p. 45. The cruel treatment of the Hungarians at the hands of Franchet d'Esperey was immortalized in Ezra Pound's magnum opus: Cantos. In it he praised the ideals of the Hungarian revolution and contrasted them with the ideals of the Ancien Regime, represented by Franchet d'Esperey. See Ezra Pound, Cantos (New York: A New Directions Book, 1965), Canto XXXV.

[14.]. Paul Azan, Franchet d 'Esperey (Paris: Flamarion, 1949), p. 230.

[15.]. Zoltan Szende, "Count Michael Katrolyi at Belgrade," The Hungarian Quarterly, V (1939), No. 3, pp. 425-437; later, the embittered Karolyi in exile, recalled the Belgrade meeting and wrote to Jaszi that Franchet d'Esperey was an "idiot." Oscar Jaszi Papers, Jan. 8, 1920, Columbia University Library.

[16.]. Tharaud, op.cit., p. 157.

[17.]. Jean Charbonneau, (ed.), Franchet d'Esperey marechal de France (Paris: Cahiers Charles de Foucauld, 1956), p. 64; Krizman, op.cit., pp. 72-74.

[18.]. Karolyi, Memoirs, pp. 132-135.

[19.]. Vilmos Bohm, Ket forradalom tuzeben [In the of Two Revolutions] (Budapest: Nepszava Kk., 1946), p. 61; Farkas claims that the convention turned the Karolyi government into a servant of Entente counter-revolution, op.cit., p. 406.

[20.]. Tivadar Batthyany, Beszamolom [My Account] (Budapest: Athenaeum, 1931), II, 26; Low, op.cit., p. 25.

[21.]. Ministerio degli affari esteri, I Documenti diplomatici italiani (Rome: Istituto poliografico dello stato, 1956),I, 6 ser., 168.

[22.]. Francis Deak, op.cit., Document 2, pp. 339-362.

[23.]. Azan, op.cit., p. 235.

[24.]. Charbonneau, op.cit, pp. 149-150.

[25.]. C. A. Macartney, Hungary and Her Successors: The Treaty and Its Consequences 1917-1937 (London: Oxford University Press, 1937), p. 105; L. Nagy, op.cit., p. 12.

[26.]. Eduard Benes, My War Memoirs (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1928), p. 427. The same faulty interpretation is given by Piotr S. Wandycz, France and Her Eastern Allies 1919-1925: French-Czechoslovak-Polish Relations from the Paris Peace Conference to Locarno (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1962), p. 20.

[27.]. Journal des debats, November 6, 1918.

[28.]. Hans Kohn, The Habsburg Empire, 1804-1918 (New York: Van Nostrand, 1959), p. 120.

[29.]. Mamatey, op.cit., p. 354.

[30.]. Juhasz Nagy, op.cit., p. 304.

[31.]. Minute, Pichon to Clemenceau, CAP, Tchecoslovaquie, Vol. 44; Benes, My War Memoirs, p. 477.

[32.]. Pichon to French embassies, November 29, 1918, CAP, Hongrie, Vol. 44; Reference to Pichon's telegram is made in Gyorgy Litvan, "Az elso vilaghaboru es az 1918-19-es forradalmak magyar vonatkozasu anyagai a francia leveltarakban" [French Archival Materials Relating to Hungary during World War I and during the Revolutions of 1918-19] Tortenelmi Szemle, ( 1973), No. 1-2, p. 270.

[33.]. Mamatey, op.cit, p. 352; Ferenc Boros; Magyar-Csehszlovak kapcsolatok 1918-1921-ben [Hungarian-Czechoslovak Relations in 1918-1921 ] (Budapest: Akademiai Kiado, 1970), p. 39.

[34.]. Quoted in Wandycz, op.cit., p. 21.

[35.]. Batthyany, op.cit., I, 298.

[36.]. Quoted in Kovago, op.cit., p. 71.

[37.]. R. W. Seton-Watson, A History of the Roumanians (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1934), p. 535.

[38.]. Azan, op.cit., p. 241.

[39.]. Saint-Aulaire, op.cit., p. 476.

[40.]. Eugene Horvath, Transylvania and the Rumanians. A Reply to Professor R. W. Seton-Watson (Budapest: Sarkany, 1935), p. 85; Sherman D. Spector, Roumania at the Paris Peace Conference: A Study of the Diplomacy of loan I. C. Bratianu (New York: Bookman,1962), p. 65.

[41.]. Macartney and Palmer, op.cit., p. 119.

[42.]. Karolyi, Valogatott irasai, II, 320.

[43.]. Louis Varjassy, Revolution, bolchevisme, reaction: L' Histoire de l'occupation francaise en Hongrie (1918-1919) (Paris, 1934), pp. 22-23; Miron Constantinescu and Stefan Pascu, eds., Unification of the Roumanian State, the Union of Transylvania with Old Romania (Bucharest: Academy of Romania, 1971), pp.244-247.

[44.]. Kellen and Barabas, op.cit, p. 203.

[45.]. Varjassy, op.cit., p. 22.

[46.]. Octavian Goga, "The Achievement of Rumanian Unity," The New Europe, IX, No. ll6 (January 2, 1919).

[47.]. Jaszi, Revolution and Counter-Revolution, p. 5 9.

[48.]. L. Nagy, op.cit., p. 239, footnote 80, Tibor Hajdu, Az 1918-as magyarorszagi polgari demotratikus forradalom [The Bourgeois Democratic Revolution of 19181 (Budapest: Kossuth Konyvkiado, 1968), p. 190. Hereafter cited as demokratikus forradalom; the Hungarian offer is judged "progressive," while Jaszi's speech is labelled as scare tactic in, Zoltan Szasz, "Az erdelyi roman polgarsag szereplese 1918 oszetn" [The Role of the Transylvanian Rumanian Bourgeoisie during the Fall of 1918] , Szazadok, No. 2, 1972, p. 325.

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