Agha (aga): commander, guild-master, head servant.
Agha of the Janissaries (Yeniceri agasi): commander of the Janissary (q.v.)
akindji: "raider," irregular cavalry volunteers.
alay-begi: deputy officer of the sandjak-begi in the sipahi corps.
Asaf: "the (wise) vezir of Solomon", epithet for grand vezirs.
Asper: unit of silver currency in the Ottoman Empire.
Arpa emini: superintendent of grains in Istanbul.
azab: salaried auxiliary worker to the military.
Beg: 1: prince, ruler of an independent principality, 2: governor of a
Beglerbegilik: province, the largest administrative unit in the Ottoman Empire;
the office of beglerbegi.
Beglerbegi: "beg of the begs," governor of a beglerbegilik or vilayet (q.v.),
in rank usually a pasha.
beshlu: auxiliary mounted soldier in garrisons.
Cebelu: an armed retainer brought to campaign by a sipahi (q.v.).
chavush: 1: courier; 2: marshal; 3: ceremonial escort.
Chelebi: title of respect in general, title of the leader of a religious order
Defterdar: director of finance, imperial exchequer.
Divan (divan-i-humayun ): imperial council, the grand vezir's (q.v.) council
and the central organ of Ottoman administration.
djaur (or kafir): "infidel," i.e., non-Muslim.
Eyalet: see vilayet.
Ferman: an imperial edict.
Fethname: an imperial charter.
gonulu: volunteer, an other appellation for akindji.
Grand Vezir, also sadr 'azam, vezir-i 'azam, vezir-i evvel: the chief vezir,
head of the Divan.
Hass: an imperial estate yielding a revenue of more than 100,000 aspers.
hatib: mosque preacher who weekly invokes God's blessing on the ruling reign
ikindi: time of the afternoon prayer.
Imam: leader of the prayers in a mosque, Muslim clergy.
Janissary corps: the sultan's standing elite infantry corps.
Kanun: regulation issued by the sultan.
Kapikulu: "slave of the Porte" employed in military, administrative or Palace
Kapudan-i derya: the grand admiral of the Ottoman fleet.
kapu-halki: the salaried officials, both administrative and military, of the
Kasim gunu (Khassim Day): November 8, the official beginning of the winter
mihrab: prayer niche in mosques indicating the direction of Mecca.
Musellem: "tax exempt," military auxiliary who provides engineering and labor
services for tax exemption.
Nisanci: the chief of the imperial council's chancery.
Re'aya: tax-paying subject of the Ottoman Empire, as distinct from the ruling
Sanjak (or liva): administrative unit of the Ottoman Empire, governed by a
sanjak begi (or mirliva), subdivision of a vilayet (q.v.).
Sheikhulislam: the mufti of Istanbul, by the 16th C. the official head of the
sipah-salar: 1: the commander of the cavalry; 2: commander.
Sipahi: cavalryman, 1: holding a timar in the provinces in return for military
service, 2: sipahi of the Porte, a member of the sultan's standing cavalry
Subashi (subasi): commanding a detachment of sipahis and responsible for the
maintenance of order in his district.
Timar: an estate with an annual income of less than 20,000 aspers.
Topcu basi: "head-gunner," chief of the artillery corps. 'Ulema: the learned hierarchy, graduates of medrese.
Vezir: "advisor", higher Ottoman rank, member of the imperial council or in
other high position.
Vilayet: province; occasionally the Turkish term beglerbegilik is used to
denote the same.
Voynuk: non-Muslim (usually Slavic) auxiliary in Ottoman service.
Yaya: "foot-soldier", 1: a Turkish peasant serving as an auxiliary with the
army, 2: (by the 16th C.) one of the corps holding land and exempt
from certain taxes in return for services to the government.
zarbuzan: various kinds of guns, especially falconets.
Zeamet (ze'amet): an estate with an annual income of 20-100,000 aspers given to
officers of the sipahi army and to provincial administrative officials.
Acsady, Ignacz (1845-1906), writer, historian
Ahmed, Ottoman grand vezir under Suleyman I
Alexander the Great, king of Macedonia (336-23 BC)
Ali, chavush, (fl. early 17th C.) official of the Porte
Artner, Edgar (1895-1972), church historian
Ayni Ali, (fl. early 17th C.) official of the Porte
Bacsy, Gyorgy (fl. mid-16th C.), King John's official
Bakic, Pavel (d. 1537), Serb nobleman, moved to Hungary in 1526
Bakocz, Tamas (1442-1521), cardinal, archbishop of Esztergom, chancellor
Bali Beg, commander of Belgrade (1521)
Barta, Gabor (b. 1942), historian
Bathory, Andras (fl. 1520-30) ban of Belgrade, treasurer of King Ferdinand
Bathory, Istvan (d. 1530), aristocrat, count palatine 1519-23, 1527-30
Batthyany, Ferenc (1497-1566), ban of Croatia
Batthyany, Orban (d. 1547), writer, politician
Bardossy, Laszlo (1890-1946), politician, premier minister of Hungary
Bayezid I, Ottoman sultan 1389-1402
Bayezid II, Ottoman sultan 1481-1512
Behram chavush, Ottoman envoy to Buda, 1520
Behram, pasha beglerbegi of Anatolia in 1526
Bende, Lajos (b. 1898), historian
Braudel, Fernand (1902-86), historian
Brodalics, Istvan [Stephen] (1470-1539), bishop of Vac, humanist, historian
Busbecque, Augier Ghislain (1522-92), diplomat, writer
Burgrio, Antonio, baron (d. 1545) papal nuncio to Hungary 1523-26 and to
Charles V (Habsburg), Emperor 1519-1566
Colonna, Romanus Aegidius [Giles of Rome] (d. 1316) Augustinian canon, writer
Commines, Philippe (1445-1509), diplomat, writer
Corvin, Mathias--see Mathias I
Cuspinian [Spiesshammer], Johannes (1473-1529), Viennese Humanist, diplomat
Czetricz, Ulrik, chamberlain of King Louis II
Czibak, Imre (d. 1534) Hungarian magnate, commander, bishop
Deer, Jozsef (1905-74), historian
Djanbardi al-Ghazali, Mameluke commander, revolted in 1520
Doria, Andrea (1466-1560), admiral, commander of the fleet of Francis I, later
of Charles V
Dozsa (Szekely) Gyorgy (d. 1514), frontier-soldier, leader of peasant war
Djzeladzade (fl. 16th C.), Ottoman high official, chronicler
Evlia (chelebi) (1611-?), Ottoman traveler, historian
Fekete, Lajos (1891-1969), historian, Turkologist
Fels, Lenart (fl. around 1530-40)> commander under Ferdinand I
Ferandus--see Ferdinand I
Ferdi (?1510-1595), Ottoman chronicler
Ferdinand I (Habsburg), king of Hungary and Bohemia 1526-64, emperor 1556-64
Forgach, Ferenc (1530/35-77) bishop of Vac, historian
Fraknoi (Franki), Vilmos (1843-1925), historian
Francis I, king of France 1515-47
Frangepan (Frankopani), Croatian-Dalmatian magnates
Frangepan, Ferenc (1483-1534), Franciscan bishop of Eger
Frangepan, Klistof [Christopher] (d. 1527), Count of Veglia, commander
Fugger von der Lilie, South German mercantile capitalist family
Gama, Vasco de (1469-1524), Portuguese explorer
Gibbon, Edward (1737-94), historian
Gritti, Lodovico (d. 1534) Venetian diplomat, businessman
Gyalokai, Jeno(1874-1945), military historian
Hayreddin Bey, commander of the 1525 Suez campaign
Hayreddin Barbarossa (1466/83-1546), corsair, Ottoman admiral, beglerbeg of
Hermann, Zsuzsanna (b. 1929), historian
Horvath, Mihaly (1809-1878), historian, minister
Ibrahim Pasha (d. 1536) Ottoman grand vezir
Inalcik, Halil (b. 1932), historian
Innocent VIII, pope 1484-92
Isabella, queen of Hungary (1519-59), daughter of King Sigismund of Poland
Istefan--see John Sigismund
Istvanffy, Miklos (1538-1615), historian, poet
John I (Szapolyai), king of Hungary 1526-40
John Sigismund, king of Hungary, prince of Transylvania 1541
Jurisich, Miklos(1490?-1543), nobleman, diplomat, commander of Koszeg in 1532
Kaldi-Nagy, Gyula (b. 1927), Turcologist
Kanizsai, Dorottya (d. after 1532), wife of Palatine Imre Perenyi, buried the
dead at Mohacs
Karlo--see Charles V
Katib Mehmed zaim ( 1532-?) Ottoman historian
Katzianer, Johann (d. 1539), commander under Ferdinand I
Karoly, Arpad (1853-1940), historian
Kemal Pashazade (b. 1483) Ottoman chronicler, after 1526 Seihk-ulislam.
Kochu Bey (fl. early 16th C.), Ottoman politician, chronicler
Kosary, Domonkos (b. 1913 .), historian
Kubinyi, Andras (b. 1929), historian
Kutuzov, Mikhail Ilarionovich (1745-l813), Russian general
Laski (Lasky), Jerome [Hieronym Jaroslaw] (1496-1541), Polish aristocrat,
diplomat of King John and Ferdinand I
Leo X, pope 1513-21
Louis II (Jagiello), king of Hungary and Bohemia 1516-26
Lufti, brother-in-law of Sultan Suleyman, grand vezir (1539-41), historian
Lukinich, Imre (1880-1950), historian
Luther, Martin (1483-1546)
Magelhaes-Godinho, V. M., economic historian
Macedoniai, Laszlo [Ladislas de Macedonia] (1480?-1536), bishop, diplomat
Marsigli, Luigi Ferdinando, count (1658-1730), scientist, soldier
Mary (Habsburg), queen of Hungary and Bohemia 1521-26, governor of the
Mathias I (Corvinus) king of Hungary 1458-90
Matuz, Jozsef (b. 1927), historian
Maximilian I (Habsburg), emperor 1493-l5l9
Maylad, Istvan (1502-1550), voivode of Transylvania, chief captain
Mehmed II (Fatih=The Conqueror), Ottoman sultan 1451-81
Montecuccoli, Raimondo (1609-81), general, military writer
Murad II, Ottoman sultan 1421-57
Mustafa, vezir in the 1520s
Nadasdy, Tamas (1498?-1562) count palatine of Hungary
Napoleon I Bonaparte (1769-1821)
Nesri (d. ca. 1512-20), Ottoman chronicler and poet
Paul III, pope 1513-19
Pechevi, Ibrahim (fl. c. 1690-1710), chronicler
Perenyi, Imre, count palatine 1504-19
Perenyi, Peter (1502-48), voivode of Transylvania, chief guard of the Holy
Petrovics, Peter (1485?-1557), magnate, commander
Piri Mohammed, (fl. 1520-25), grand vezir
Piri Reis (1460?-1554?), Ottoman cartographer, naval commander
Radic, Bosic (fl. 16th C.), Serbian aristocrat
Raskay, Gaspar (or Gabor) (fl. 1500-40), commander of cavalry in the battle of
Mohacs, comes of Co. Nograd after 1526
Revay, Ferenc (fl. 16th C.) vice-palatine, protonotary
Roggendorf, Wilhelm (fl. 16th C.), commander under Ferdinand I
Rustan, vezir, son-in-law of Suleyman
Rycaut, Sir Paul (1628-1700), author and traveller
Salamon, Ferenc (1825-92), historian
Salm, Nikolas (fl. 1459), commander under Ferdinand I
Sarffy, Ferenc, captain of Gyor 1526-27
Sarkany, Ambrus (d. 1526), baron, ban of Belgrade
Sead-Eddin (fl. 1536) scholar, historian, Seihk-ul-Islam
Selim I ('the Grim'), Ottoman sultan 1512-20
Sigismund (Luxemburg), king of Hungary 1387-1437, emperor 1410-1437
Sigismund I (Jagiello), king of Poland 1506-48
Sinan, chavush (fl 16th C ), chronicler
Suleyman I ('the Magnificent'), Ottoman sultan 1520-66
Szapolyai--see John I
Szalahazi, Tamas (fl. 16th C.) chancellor, bishop
Szalanczy, Janos (fl 1527-57), aristocrat, diplomat
Szalay, Laszl6 (1813-64), historian, poet
Szakaly, Ferenc (b.1942), historian
Szekfu, Gyula (1883-1955), historian, writer
Szeremi, Gyorgy (1490?-1548?) royal chaplain, historian
Szerencses, Imre (fl 16th C.), royal financier, treasurer
Thurzo, Elek (1490?-1543), royal official, treasurer
Thury, J6zsef (1861-1906), Turcologist
Tomori, Pal (1475?-1526), archbishop of Kalocsa, commander-in-chief of the
Hungarian army at Mohacs
Torok, Balint (d 1551), magnate, soldier
Torok, Pal (1885-1943), historian
Turenne, Henri de la Tour d'Auverge (1611-1675), marshal of France, military
Utiesenic (Frater Martinuzzi), Gyorgy (1482-1551), cardinal, bishop of Varad,
diplomat of King John ["Friar George"]
Varday, Pal (1483-1549), archbishop of Esztergom
Verancsics, Antal (1504-73) cardinal, archbishop of Esztergom, historian
Villier de l'Isle-Adam (1464-1573), commander of the Knights of St. John,
Vingarti, Horvath Gaspar, royal stewart of Louis II, adherent of Ferdinand I
Wese, archbishop of Lund, diplomat
Werboczy, Istvan (1458-1541), lawyer, count palatine
Wladislas I, king of Poland (as Wladyslaw III Jagiellonczyk) 1434-44, king of
Wladislas II, king of Bohemia (as Vladislav IV) 1471-1516, king of Hungary
The Fall of The Medieval Kingdom of Hungary: Mohacs 1526 - Buda 1541