man appears on the territory of the future Transylvania 
evidence from Péterfalva (Petresti), Erõsd (Ariusd), and
elsewhere indicates that the Stone-Age stage of development has been reached in
of the Wietenberg culture with rudimentary political organization inhabit this
mentions that Transylvania is inhabited by Agathyrs, Scythians, and Celts.
Getic-Dacian domain includes the future Transylvania.
emperor Trajan destroys the Dacian domain of Decebalus, and its territory
becomes a Roman province for the next 165 years. (all subsequent dates will be
Aurelian evacuates the Romans from Dacia, and the Goths gain possession of its
Huns push the Goths out and establish their own dominance.
ruler of the Huns, dies and his empire disintegrates. For a brief period the
territory of Transylvania is controlled by the Gepids.
Bajan of the Avars pushes the Gepids out of this area. Besides the Avars,
traces of Slavic settlements appear after this date.
Tulln the Franks defeat the Avars. According to the Kézai Chronicle it
is at this time that the Székely remnants flee east and settle in
influence replaces Avar rule as Khan Krum pushes the frontiers of his domain
all the way north to the Tisza (Tisa, Theiss) River.
the seven Magyar tribes sweep into the Carpathian Basin, the tribe of the
gyula (military warlord) and the tribe of the kende (titular
ruler) occupy the area that will become Transylvania. The gyepü
(military frontier) defense system is established and henceforth Transylvania
becomes the organizational center of defense activities against threats from
the East. Military pressure from the Petchenegs is its first challenge.
Petchenegs control most of the area immediately east and south of Transylvania.
These territories will in the future become Moldavia, Wallachia, and Dobruja
reign of István I (Saint Stephen) transforms the Hungarian kingdom into
a centralized state and imposes Western Christianity on the inhabitants.
Stephen establishes the bishopric of Gyulafehérvár (Alba Iulia,
Karlsburg), consolidates his hold over Transylvania, and defeats the
decentralizing efforts of the Transylvanian leaders Gyula and of Ajtony.
(Kumans) in alliance with Byzantium defeat the Petchenegs and acquire dominant
control over the lowlands east and north of the Danube and south and east of
the Carpathians. Cuman control over this area lasts until the great Mongol
(Tatar) invasion of 1241. Cuman incursions into Transylvania occur sporadically
after 1068 but are unable to wrest the area from Hungarian control because
László I decisively defeats the Cumans near Orsova (Orsova) in
documents mention for the first time the title vajda (voivode) of Transylvania,
specifically "Mercurius princeps."
II (1141--62) invites Saxon (German) settlers to populate those areas of
Transylvania that are important to the defense of the kingdom and are not yet
peopled by the Székelys and Magyars.
Monastery of Kerc (Cirta) is founded in Szeben (Sibiu) County.
the Fogaras (Fagaras) area of southeastern Transylvania, the existence of Vlach
(Rumanian) settlements is mentioned in royal documents for the first time.
counter Cuman incursions, Andrew II (1205--35) settles Teutonic Knights in the
Barcaság (Bîrsa) area of southeastern Transylvania.
Székely population migrates from southeastern Transylvania to the
eastern corner of Transylvania. Their former area of settlement in southeastern
Transylvania is now settled by Saxons (Germans) who are guaranteed certain
privileges, autonomy, and exemptions by the Andreanum of 1224.
II of Hungary expels the Teutonic Knights from Transylvania after they attempt
to set up a state within a state. However, the other German settlements
continue to receive royal support and extensive rights to autonomy.
is made of the establishment by Prince Béla of the first Cuman bishopric
with its center at Civitas Milcovie (Odobesti today) east of the Carpathians in
bull mentions that in the southern part of Moldavia and the eastern part of
Wallachia there is a significant Vlach (Rumanian) Orthodox population.
Mongol (Tatar) invasion sweeps through Transylvania, devastates the land, and
depopulates the countryside. The invasion also destroys and scatters the Cuman
settlements south and east of the Carpathians.
Michael's Cathedral is constructed at Gyulafehérvár; it is one of
the most important Romanesque-style structures in Transylvania.
repopulate the Aranyos (Aries, Aranyosch) area and Saxons repopulate the area
of Medgyes (Medias, Mediasch) to compensate for Tatar devastations.
are permanently settled along the Körös (Cris,), Temes (Timis,
Temesch), and Maros (Mures, Mieresch) rivers as well as the Hungarian plains
between the Tisza (Tisa, Theiss) and the Danube rivers.
Tatar (Mongol) incursion sweeps through Transylvania.
mention is made of a general conclave of the nobility (congregatio
generalis) in Transylvania.
III holds a meeting at Gyulafehérvár, (Alba Iulia, Karlsburg)
where for the first time Vlachs (Rumanians) are also present besides the
Hungarian nobility and the representatives of the Székelys and the
III, last king in the line of Árpád, dies.
general conclave (congregatio generalis) of the Székelys in
eastern Transylvania is first mentioned in royal documents.
plague devastates Transylvania and other parts of the Hungarian kingdom.
Crimean Tatars make an incursion into Transylvania but Vajda (Voivode) Endre
Lackfi defeats them.
Michael's Church is constructed at Kolozsvár (Klausenburg, Cluj). It is
one of the most important Gothic-style structures in Transylvania.
I begins a campaign to convert the Vlach (Rumanian) population to Roman
major Ottoman Turkish incursion into Transylvania.
Budai Nagy leads a major peasant revolt at Bábolna (Bobîlna). In
response to this social strife the Hungarian nobility, the Saxons, and the
Székelys establish the Union of Three Nations (Unio Trium
Hunyadi becomes vajda (voivode) of Transylvania and in this same year he
defeats the Ottoman Turks near Marosszentimre (Sîntimbru),
Gyulafehérvár (Alba Iulia), and Nagyszeben (Hermannstadt, Sibiu).
Hunyadi becomes regent of Hungary.
Hunyadi stops the Ottoman Turks led by Mohammed II at
Corvinus (Hunyadi) crushes the revolt of the Transylvanian nobility.
Battle of Kenyérmezõ (Cîmpul Pîinii) takes place
where the armies of István Báthory and Pál Kinizsi defeat
Saxons establish their own self-governing institution, the Saxon
incursions devastate some areas of Transylvania.
II issues a letter of exemptions in which he reaffirms the freedoms and
privileges of the Székelys in eastern Transylvania.
conclaves in Agyagfalva (Lutita) and Székelyudvarhely (Odorheiu)
establish the rules of appeal within the Székely judicial system.
Zápolya becomes vajda (voivode) of Transylvania.
peasant rebellion led by György Dózsa sweeps through central
Hungary and has reverberations throughout Transylvania. János
Zápolya, voivode of Transylvania, decisively defeats the peasant army
near Temesvár (Timisoara) and has Dózsa executed.
first significant Orthodox bishopric in Transylvania is established at
Rév (Vadul Crisului).
II (the Magnificent) defeats the Hungarians in the Battle of Mohács.
Louis II, king of Hungary, and many of the nobility and higher clergy lose
their lives in the battle. Consequently, the Hungarian kingdom is opened to
Ottoman conquest and depredation. The defeat also sets the stage for years of
internal strife as the struggle for the succession pits János
Zápolya, voivode of Transylvania, against Ferdinand II of the House of
Treaty of Várad ([Nagyvárad], Oradea, Grosswardein) temporarily
terminates hostilities, leaving western Hungary under Ferdinand, while
Zápolya controls eastern Hungary and Transylvania.
falls to the Ottoman Turks. The Hungarian kingdom is divided into three parts,
with the Habsburgs controlling the west, the Turks controlling the central
plain, and Transylvania becoming semiautonomous under Hungarian princes
beginning with János Zsigmond (1541--51, 1556--71) son of János
Zápolya. Henceforth the rulers of Transylvania attempt to maintain their
independence by accepting Ottoman supremacy. They transform Transylvania into
the main center of Hungarian culture and national development until at least
national convention at Torda (Turda, Thorenburg [Thorda]) announces the union
of Transylvania with the Partium (the Hungarian plains east of the Tisza and to
the west of Transylvania).
paper mill is set up in Kronstadt (Brassó, Brasov) to supply the needs
of the fledgling publishing activities in Transylvania. Many of the works that
appear reflect the religious ferment of the time and the tremendous impact that
the Reformation has had on Transylvanian intellectual development.
Diet of Transylvania proclaims that every person has the right to follow the
religion of choice. Transylvania thus becomes the first state in Europe to
declare a policy of religious toleration.
Dávid publishes "Rövid Magyarázat" ("A Brief Exposition") at
Kolozsvár (Cluj, Klausenburg) and thereby establishes the Hungarian
version of Unitarianism.
Diet of Transylvania decrees the "accepted" status of the Roman Catholic,
Lutheran, Calvin Reformed, and Unitarian faiths.
Báthory becomes prince of Transylvania until 1581.
Báthory becomes king of Poland.
Báthory founds a Jesuit academy that becomes the precursor of
contemporary higher education in Kolozsvár (Cluj, Klausenburg).
Báthory becomes prince of Transylvania until 1597. He embroils his state
in the Fifteen Years' War on the side of the Habsburgs against the Turks
(1591--1606). The bloodshed and chaos that ensue enable the Wallachian voivode,
Mihai Viteazul, to invade Transylvania.
Viteazul obtains control over Transylvania in October, 1599, and holds sway
until September, 1600. Although this interlude is less than a year, it has been
presented in recent writings by Rumanian historians as the first "unification"
of the "Rumanian countries." His rule is followed by the brutal Habsburg
incursion of George Basta, who terrorizes Transylvania from 1599 to 1604.
popular uprising led by István Bocskai finally re-establishes order.
Bocskai defeats the Habsburg forces and is able to re-establish Transylvanian
independence. He is also successful in terminating the Fifteen Years' War with
the signing of the Treaties of Vienna (June 23, 1606) and Zsitvatorok (November
Báthory becomes prince of Transylvania and for a short period also
claims to be voivode of Wallachia.
Bethlen becomes prince of Transylvania and retains this position until his
death in 1629. His reign is the "Golden Age" of independent Transylvania.
Commerce, construction, education, and culture flourish. Transylvania plays an
important role in the Thirty Years' War.
Treaty of Nikolsburg recognizes Transylvanian independence.
Rákóczi I becomes prince of Transylvania and reigns until 1648.
begins to appear as an important crop in Transylvania.
again becomes embroiled in the Thirty Years' War as an ally of Sweden and
Treaty of Linz terminates Transylvania's involvement in the conflict on
favorable terms, ceding to it seven counties of the Partium. The treaty also
confirms the terms of the Treaty of Nikolsburg with the further stipulation
that religious toleration should also apply to the serfs.
the sponsorship of György Rákóczi I the first complete
Rumanian translation of the New Testament (Noul Testament) appears in
Gyulafehérvár (Alba Iulia, Karlsburg).
Rákóczi II becomes prince of Transylvania and reigns until 1660.
Approbatae Constitutiones Regni Transilvaniae is published. It becomes
the legal framework of Transylvania for the next 200 years.
György Rákóczi II undertakes his ill-fated war to obtain the
Polish crown. Although he successfully captures Krakow and Warsaw, the
defection of allies and the stretched supply lines lead to his defeat and the
capture of his army by the Tatars.
Lorántffy, the widow of György Rákóczi I, establishes
a Rumanian school in Fogaras (Fagaras).
Turks and their Tatar allies unleash a punitive expedition against
Transylvania. It devastates and depopulates the Szamos (Somes) Valley and leads
to the sack of such cities as Gyulafehérvár.