[Table of Contents] [Previous] [Next] [HMK Home] Senator Charles J. Hokky : Ruthenia



-Abraham Lincoln

According to the English historian, MACCARTNEY, 1 it is the opinion of the modern Hungarian historians that at the time when the Magyars occupied Hungary, the area surrounded by the Carpathian Mountains, in and after 896, a distant and uncultivated territory, was unpopulated, or at least, most parts were uninhabited.

The main body of the Magyars entered at Verecke. The first Hungarian settlement, the first campsite was Ungvar, on the east side of the River Ung.

Also the modern Hungarian historians, HODINKA, BONKALO, HOMAN, and SZEKFÜ, have estimated the beginning of the immigration of the Rusins to be after the Mongolian invasion (1241). "The Mongolian invasion of 1240-41 proved that the wooded Carpathian belt, occupied only at strategical points but otherwise left uninhabited and undefended, did not offered sufficient protection against a fast surprise attack. As a result of the immigration policy of the l3th century; the various Slavic populations of the country increased and also a considerable Germanic group moved in." 2 The latter, however, not into Ruthenia.

However the mass of the Rusins came during the first part of the rule of Lajos the Great (1340-1380), and settled down finally during the rule of Zsigmond (1388-1438). At this time, under the leadership of Theodor KORYATOYIC, Podolian prince, about 30-40 thousand people asked for and gained entrance. KORYATOVICH was given the "Duchy of Munkacs", which extended from Munkacs almost to the eastern border.

The "Huculs" living in the area of Raho-Körösmezö immigrated, or better, infiltrated - because they did not come in groups - in the l8-th century.

After the peasant uprising of 1846 in Galicia, great masses had fled. The Rusins still remember this event. Even I met a few Rusins who mentioned their grandfathers who came with these immigrants. At different times, families came in continuously and found refuge as shepherds in some smaller or larger valleys or plateaus, uninhabited at that time.

Bela ILLÉS had written about this. "The greatest (? ) part of the Rusins came in 1846 across the Carpathian slopes to the South, from Galicia to Hungary. The great peasant revolution in Ga1icia which had taken place in 1846, was called the Great Ordeal, the Polish lords and the German officers butchered the revolution of the peasants, and those who did not flee became the hangman's prey. I knew a Rusin living at Pemete who lived in Galicia at the time of the Great Ordeal: Ivan MIHALKO, the father of the Bear-Killer, who was brought to the southern slopes of the Carpathians at the age of four years. " 3 .

The Fact was recognized even by the Communist ILLÉS. The statement "greatest part" is exaggerated, as there had been already many more Rusins in Ruthénia, than those "refugees" who sought refuge after the peasant uprising. However, the facts are still known by many people.

The Rusin people lived peacefully together with the Hungarians until 1912. It did not occur to anyone to claim this area and people from Hungary.

At first, Count BOBRINSKY and the GEROVSKIY Brothers started to agitate the simple people, on religious basis, just before World War I. However, behind the religious strife there were hidden political aims.

This was followed by the two memorandums of MASARYK the first one in 1915, then the second one year later, In the first memorandum, he did not claim the cities of Pozsony, Leva, Rimaszombat, and Kassa,


But in the second memorandum, he not only laid claim to these, but also Ungvar, and the entire Ruthenia. A1- though he knew - as remarked by ST. AULAIRE, French author - that: "Compared to the Russian oppression, the Austrian was an example of liberal manners. " 4 .

Another Frenchman, MARTINE, stated the same. ". . . The Czechs preferred to be principals in Vienna, as mostly they had been, and did not think that some day they would become victims of a conqueror invading from Prussia or Russia. They did not fight for the destruction of the Monarchy, only for political influence. " 5 .

The idea of MASARYK, to obtain Ruthenia at any price, was confirmed in the winter of 1917, in Ukraine when he conferred with MURAVYEV, the Ukrainian commissar, - whose boss was STALIN. MURAVYEV was the chief commissar for the national minorities.

From Ukraine he went to the U.S. , As soon as he arrived, in May 1918, he immediately found contact with the local Ruthenian colonies, which he could not find in Ruthenia itself. Of special note was his contact with ZATKOVIC, who was the leader of a local organization. They asked for autonomy, "On July 23, 1918, in Homestead, but did not say in which state" said MASARYK.

Grigory, ZATKOVIC formed a National Council on July 23, 1918, along with some of his friends. MASARYK guaranteed the autonomy, and on July 26, 1918, he signed the contract, at Philadelphia, and promised that the boundaries will be set so that the Rusins would be satisfied. On November 12, 1918 the National Council again had a meeting in Scranton and accepted a resolution concerning the union with the Czechoslovakian state, on a federative basis. The decree was accepted with the condition that it would also include some originally Rusin districts with mainly Slovak population. MASARYK expressed his satisfaction, but admonished them, that the final word would be spoken by the Peace Conference. (The expose of YATKOVIC. )

MASARYK did not even make an attempt to establish contact with the Rusin population of Ruthenia, the only authorized group, in order to obtain their agreement to the union.


"June 2lst, 1919, the American delegation to Peace Conference already recommended either as a protectorate or as a part of a State with exactly the same arguments as used by Dr. BENES a few days later. . " the intensive hatred of Ruthenes for the oppressive Magyar rule, the undesirability of allowing Russia to get a footing across the Carpathians or Hungary to thrust a wedge between Czechoslovakia and Romania, and the general advantages of Czechoslovak rule for Ruthenes, Dr, BENES then restated this to Supreme Council of February 5th. " 6

BENES revealed his plans in his work "Ou vont les Slaves" (Where the Slaves Are Going, Paris, 1948). "The motive of my activity was the battle against the German, and the Hungaro-Turk menace, which was completely in the line of the Slavic traditions. " Here he revealed that it was necessary to adjoin Ruthenia to Czechoslovakia in order to turn it over to the legal owner, Russia on a later date. However, he did not mention that at the same time, - per analogiam - thé Sudeten-Germans had lived in their settlements possessed until recently at least as long as the Rusins did in Ruthenia and they were 34,4% of the total population of Czechoslovakia.

The expression "Slavic traditions" here means Pan-Slavic traditions. The statement of BENES is identical with the statement of MARX, who discussed the plans of Tsar Peter the Great. According to this line of thought the Turks, the Hungarians, and the Germans are blocking the way of the Pan-Slavic expansion. 7 .

This is clearly visible from the facts, that already before 1914 they had initiated the first Balkan War for the purpose of weakening Turkey. In 1914, they ignited World War I by the attempt at Sarajevo. In 1945, as the result of World War II, the Pan-Slavic communism succeeded in expanding its power to Berlin, and even further.

KOSSUTH described the Pan-Slavic communism with shocking words already in 1849. His astonishing prophecies became true in our days, almost word by word. Anyone can find several such statements in the book of Endre SEBESTYEN, 8 ,


BLACKWALL had stated almost 100 years ago: "Hungary provides the most important obstacle against the Pan-Slavic efforts. "

But let us continue analyzing the machinations of BENES. Harold NICHOLSON stated:' "Dine with BENES and KRAMAR and thereafter discuss Czech frontiers. BENES has masses of sketch maps designed for the use of children, or for the Council des Dix (The Council of the Ten)". 9 .

The Czech sub-committee is so described by NICHOLSON: "We summon BENES and ask him endless questions: never have I known so voluble a man, " 10

An official memorandum had criticized the Hungarian census. This was necessary to make the number of the Hungarians taken away from their country appear less. BENES mentioned only three hundred thousand Hungarians. It was similar to the case of the Sudetes, where instead of 3. 5 millions of Germans, he admitted only 1 million. This is also recorded by Sir DONALD. Their first requests were modest. But they extended their demands as soon as any opportunity presented itself and as the enemy weakened. "On 6 December 1918, the Czechs contemplated and claimed an area of pre-war Hungary inhabited by 202,511 Magyars, or 11.2 per cent of the whole Slovakia and Ruthenia. In two weeks their claim was augmented to 841,198 Magyars, followed a month later, 3rd January 1919, by a further demand for the annexation of 899,953 Magyars, while finally they were granted under the Treaty of Trianon, according to the census of that date, no fewer than 1,066,577 Hungarians, or a total of over 32.2 per cent of the population of the Northern part of the prewar Hungary annexed to Czecho-Slovakia. " BENES always easily twisted the truth. He recommended that the transversal line Sátoraljaújhely-Körösmezö be annexed to Czechoslovakia. (This was never claimed even by the Ruthenians. ) 11

This was the reason why they had to declare the small creek Ronva a navigable river. The normal water level of the creek is so low t at a three year old child can wade across. Dr. Ferenc OLAY presented a photograph. Some small children are shown playing in the brook. They have a small dog with them, and the water is hardly reaching to the dog's abdomen 12


BENES emphasized that Czechoslovakia is interested in the first line for strategic considerations in connection with Ruthenia. . . . As with Romania, a close understanding already existed. However, all along he was thinking about the Soviets. He later admitted the interests of the Republic for the Soviets, (Ou vont les Slave s. )

Meanwhile, there was a Council Formed in Ruthenia which declared the union with Czechoslovakia. "The first step toward any national movement seems to have been taken on November 8th 1918, when a Ruthene National Council constituted itself at Lubovna, on the Slovak border, and demanded self-determination for the Ruthenes and dissolution of the connection with Hungary. On November 9, a second council constituted itself in Uzhorod. This body, on the contrary, declared its loyalty to Hungary. '' 13

The "Huculs" were standing to their own purposes, and their "Council" did not even make any attempt to tie themselves to anyone's fate.

Hungary guaranteed the autonomy of the Rusins in December 1918, in the X, Article of Law. The Soym 14 assembled in Munkacs and declared the union with Hungary.

On January 3rd, 1919, the Czech troops, under the command of General Paris, occupied Ungvar.

The Romanians advanced to Munkacs. Thereupon a strong Ukrainian detachment arrived from East Galicia on January 17, 1919, to protect their brothers from the Gzechs and Romanians. Four days later, the Ukrainians moved out. But in Huszt they established a Third Council, which declared the union with Ukraine.

The statement of THOMPSON, British Minister of Aeronautics, when he referred to the fight of the Czechs, Romanians, and Serbs over Hungary: "The fight of the lobsters over a carcass in the water" would also be proper to describe these events. "

At the beginning of March, President WILSON delegated an American officer, GODWYN to Ruthenia in order to find out where the Rusins wanted to join. GODWYN stayed between March 8-10, 1919 in Ruthenia. Upon his return he reported to WILSON: "The Rusins want to join the Hungarians, and their autonomy is already guaranteed. " 15


"On May 8 a new Central Council purporting to represent all three earlier Councils met in Uzhorod under chairmanship of M. VOLOSIN. . . The meeting therefore voted unanimously to accept the fait accomplit of the Czech solution (perhaps all the less reluctantly since Czech troops were occupying the town and Czech police actually keeping order in the hall),

On November 9th, a second Council constituted itself in Uzhorod. This body on the contrary, declared its loyalty to Hungary. " 16

The delegates were selected by orders. By order of Gen. PARIS the Czech Chief of Police, the delegates were gathered. Some were dragged from their beds. Three of them successfully escaped. These were the democratic ways of preparing the Czechoslovak Republic.

On May 18, BENES submitted the plan of the autonomy which closely Followed the outlines of the Hungarian X, [Article of Law, dated December 21, 1918, The plan provided a governor, a minister in the central government (without portfolio), and a local diet. The latter was authorized to decide in matters of language, religion, education, and local administration. Rusin representatives were secured places in the Parliament of Prague, but could not vote in matters which were under the jurisdiction of their own diet. 17 Although this was a commonly known fact.

The Romanians withdrew later. But on June 16, they scattered the "Council of the Huculs", as MACCARTNEY remarked in his work cited.

On 19 September 1919 the autonomy was included in the peace treaty of St. Germain; however, the result was nothing, The Czechs did not care for it, and Ruthenia was given to the Czechs.

One would wonder why the Hungarians tolerated this confusion and anarchy after being able to maintain order in this area for over a thousand years. However, one should not forget, that at this time Hungary was in no position to regain control of area and events, being prevented from doing so by the armistice. Also, at this time, there was first a revolutionary government, then a communist dictatorship under the notorious Bela KUN ' ruling in Hungary Both had no interest to save the territorial integrity of the country; on the contrary, the weakening of Hungary was one of the basic interests of the pan-slavistic Communism from the very beginning,


The Hungarians referred to two historical facts in their protest prior to this treaty.

1) The Rusins were always loyal to the Hungarians, and wanted to return to Hungary.

I mention only two characteristic facts, but if anyone wanted to spend some time, he would find several others, The first, the insurrection of Francis RAKOCZI II, - when the "ragged", the poverty-stricken Hungarians and Rusins asked Francis RAKOCZI, the richest aristocrat of Hungary and perhaps of all Europe of his time to lead them. For eight years they fought in. their war of independence against perhaps the strongest army of Europe until they had to lay down their arms on the meadows of Majtény. The Rusins earned in these ! battles the name of "gens fidelissima", the most faithful nation. There was no example that this simple people did not stand with the Hungarians. Another characteristic detail is marked in the memories of S. A. KOVPAK. He wrote, remembering his fights against ; Hungarian soldiers, that only 8, eight Rusins had joined the partisans from the members of Hungarian military units who were taken prisoners by him during his guerrilla activity. 18

We can say that this is an insignificant number indeed especially considering that during one of the elections under Czech rule, 1/3 of the Rusins voted for the Communist Party. They did not know the communist system as yet, because if they had known, this small number had no meaning; but since they did not, it can be considered only as a sign of faithfulness toward the Hungarians.

But the same is also true for the time of the Hungarian War of independence in 1848-49 and also for the four years of suffering during World War I.

2) The historical rights of Hungary can not be denied.
Yet, all the protests were in vain

Robert LANSING, U.S. Secretary of State, had left the peace conference. He became discouraged about the differences between President WILSON and himself.According to him, President WILSON relied completely on Col. HOUSE. What HOUSE wanted, he wanted, STEED mentioned in his Memories, that Col. HOUSE did not do anything without consulting STEED. On the other hand, STEED did not give any advice without listening to the two Chief Delegates of the Czechs : MASARYK and BENES. - "The Commissioners, other than Colonel HOUSE, were kept in almost complete ignorance of the preliminary negotiations," "Behind closed doors, these four individuals who controlled the policies of the US Great Britain, France, and Italy passed final judgment. " 19

These details make it clear that the unprepared WILSON (as stated by LANSING ) only did what MASARYK and BENES suggested, as interpreted by HOUSE and Wickham STEED. As Harold NICHOLSON wrote, "there was the problem of Secret Treaties. " 20

The observations of POZZI corroborate these. "This way MASARYK and BENES controlled the decisions of the conference, which decided about the corpse of Hungary. The greediness of the Czechs, as well as their Romanian and Serbian companions, had taken advantage of the situation. " 21

Besides the persons already listed, TARDIEU and Seton WATSON also forced their ideas concerning the Czechs.

BENES was astonished when all their exaggerated demands were fulfilled. "I am alarmed when I see that they give me everything that I ask for. It is too much. " 22 . Even he considered it as too much. We know very well that there had been only generous gentlemen present at the peace conference, who liked to give - from the possession of others.

The Czechs obtained Ruthenia in September 1919, but already in 1920 MASARYK promised to deliver it to the Soviet Union; by GILLERSON, the representative of the Soviet Red Cross; when TUKHACHEVSKIY was standing at Warsaw with his Bolshevik troops.

"I consider the people of Ruthenia as deposit to Czechoslovakia, a deposit which we Czechs would deliver to the Soviet Union at the first opportunity. I declare this to you, Sir


, as the President of the Republic. I authorized you to report this to your Government in Moscow. " 23

So did the great humanist and democrat MASARYK promise the people of Ruthenia to the Soviets without asking or considering their will. This occurred in 1920, not even a year after Ruthenia had been obtained. He had pulled away his mask of the humanist and the democrat with his own statement. However at that time they already had counted upon the total victory of the communism. They thought that Poland had been already trampled by the Soviets.

In fact, the position of the Polish seemed to be hopeless in the summer of 1920. BENES was waiting for the Russians with a half-communist government. In Czechoslovakia they illuminated 20 cities. On August 15 1920 the following article was issued in the "Pravo Lidu" (True People): "The antibolsevistic front, which never had been too strong anyhow, now has finally collapsed ,France and England attempted to involve Czechoslovakia in anti-Bolshevistic actions..... On our part, similar politics are unacceptable. We are not entering this way at an price, may it result in anything in the future. The Hungarians were willing to undertake this hangman's job."

According to the Czechs, helping Poland at that time in a critical situation due to the deadly Soviet blow, - was a "hangman's job". - Prior to the 20th century it was the sign of courage to help the weak ' ones, and then, the "hangman's job" used to be the assistance to the stronger one. However, the Czechs started earlier what the Russians accomplished in larger style; to pervert ideas; to turn white into black. '

The refusal to aid Poland was characteristic of the , admiration of the Czech leaders for the Bolsheviks. According to Polish sources, they had taken away the 'coal-basin of Teschen from Poland that time. According to the same sources, they even conferred with Germany and the Soviets about dividing Poland, the fourth time. 24

It is worthwhile to look at this problem, as elucidated by Louis VILLAT professor at the University of Besancon. He explained the manner in which the way of ; the Hungarian troops and rangers was blocked -just exactly in Ruthenia.


This was not the Fault of the people of Ruthenia, who on the c o n t r a r y, wanted to move against the bolshevik army. VILLAT emphasized how the russophil propaganda increased in the Czech industrial centers as the Soviet troops were at the entrances of Warsaw. When the suburbs of Warsaw were bombed on June 27, 1920, they illuminated 20 Czech cities, for the advance of the Soviet-Russian troops, This is as stated by L. VILLAT, who in his long article was fighting for justice for Hungary. 25

In this antibolshevistic campaign, Ruthenia would have had an extremely important role, being the shortest route leading to Poland; but the Czechs did not allow anything to pass.

". . . BENES demanded the Hungarian-owned Slovakia in order to enable Czechoslovakia to insure the defense of the eastern countries against the Bolshevism.

In order to assure them of his neutrality and benevolence the first thought of the same BENES, as newly-made Foreign Minister at Prague, was to send secret delegates to Bela KUN and SAMUELLY, who at that time were converting Budapest to bolshevism according to Russian directives.

In June 1920, the very same BENES refused the transit permit for the Hungarian ammunition transports directed to Poland.. and was ready to open the borders of Slovakia for the Russian bolshevik army, to facilitate the invasion of Central Europe. . . . " 26

The declaration of MASARYK of 1920 was affirmed by Prof., BYDLO in his statement at the 10th anniversary of the republic: "We annexed the Rusins to the Czechoslovakian Republic only temporarily; later we will deliver them to where they belong: to Ukraine. " 27

BENES himself, pointed out the importance of Ruthenia in his statement at Ersekujvar, on December 7 1933: "I say truthfully and openly that there is no Little Entente without Slovakia and Ruthenia "

At the time of the Sudeten crisis, they appointed Ondrej BRODY the leader of the Rusin Farmers' Association as well as the leader of the Rusin opposition, to the office of Prime Minister of Ruthenia.


However, when he applied for new elections, he was accused of planing to annex the Rusin people to Hungary. Upon suspicion and denunciation he was arrested and without previous trial and disregarding his right of immunity, he was imprisoned in the Pankrac prison near Prague. He was released from there only when the Hungarians occupied Ruthenia.

It was characteristic that at this time the Czechs were treating some political prisoners in the same manners the Soviets. One of these political prisoners, maltreated by Czech policemen, was beaten continuously on the head, until he fainted. Then they poured several buckets of water on him. When he regained consciousness, the beating of his head continued, Since they still were unable to coerce a confession, injections were administered. When he returned home, he was so weak that he was hardly able to walk. We still could verify these incidents by several witnesses.

After the arrest of BRODY the Ukrainian Republic of VOLOSIN, under the protectorate of HITLER, followed on October 1938, shortly thereafter, the leading personalities of the Rusins and Hungarians were arrested and confined to the concentration camp on the Dumen Alp where they were forced to carry logs covered with ice. This was the first concentration camp in Ruthenia. Czech troops and "Sick" guardsmen maintained order, or, more accurately, terrorized the population. At this time the first Soviet-and Hitler-type election, the one-list election, was conducted in Ruthenia. They had to elect 30 representatives. The Hungarians were offered one space but they did not accept it. On March 14, VOLOSIN declared the Ukrainian Republic which did not exist even 24 hours; for in the early hours of March 15, the Hungarians commenced the military occupation of Ruthenia. VOLOSIN and his group were forced to leave Ruthenia crossing the bridge at Szlatine toward Romania. He later applied for amnesty from the Hungarians and it was granted. But he, then, did not accept this amnesty and moved to Prague. However, those who led him into the arena of' politics deserted him. When the communists came to power, he was wanted for death. His desperate wife went to see Peter SRAMEK, who mostly encouraged him to enter politics and now just shrugged his shoulders saying; "Why did he politicize? " He then was deported by the communists and never returned. Most of his friends who deserted him saved their own neck.


Half a year after the occupation of Ruthenia Europe was set afire by HITLER. On September 3, 1939 he attacked Poland, an aggression which led to World War II. In such times it is impossible to introduce political reforms. The Hungarians emphasized economic improvements necessitated by the extremely poor economic conditions. We wish to deal with this subject later as a separate entity.

Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union made a second agreement in 1935. At this time airports were constructed in Ruthenia, e. g. at Aknaszlatina, in order to facilitate the Soviet approach toward the C. S. R.

We have to note here that the Hungarian government had knowledge of a letter written by BENES in May 1939, addressed to MOLOTOV, and to the French and British Foreign Ministers, BONNET and HALIFAX, to call their attention to Ruthenia, which now was in the hands of the Hungarians. He needed this area in order to offer it to STALIN again, as he did in 1932.

At the end of October 1944, the armies of the communists completed the occupation of Ruthenia. After the bolshevik troops arrived, a delegation appeared with the purpose of delivering Ruthenia. The members of the Czech contingent of this delegation were ex-minister MEMEC, General NIZBORSKY, and Msgr. HALA; the Slovak contingent included SOLTÉSZ, and the son of an ex-minister, Dr. Fedor HODZA. They were unable to find anyone else among the Rusins, but TURYANITSA, a chimney sweeper, who once scraped furnaces at Szolyva. However, at the same time, upon initiative of President BENES and Prime Minister Fierlinger, the Parliament also declared the cession of Ruthenia. The transfer was performed on June 29, 1945, and completed on July 16. Prime Minister FIERLINGER stated at this time: "The moment arrived when Ruthenia returned to her country. "However, this "return" occurred before the peace treaty was signed, and again without consent of the population, which was not even consulted; Still, prior to the transfer, and while the Czech delegation was present, the Soviets deported the people of Ruthenia between 18 and 50 years of age; later they released the 5 oldest age groups


The Soviets swallowed the small country as a boa constrictor swallows a small rabbit, without asking whether he liked it or not. Russia, with her area of 21, 000. 000 square kilometers (8,110. 000 sq. mi.) is 1750 times as large as tiny Ruthenia. The Soviet did not make a province, but just blended it in as a district named Zakarpatska Oblast. Ruthenia so ceases to exist ; as long as there is a Soviet Union.

Mr. STOKES, correspondent of the St. Louis Post Dispatch had seen in Washington the secret agreement of STALIN and BENES, and explained same in details. According to him, in this agreement Ruthenia was referred to as "spearhead toward the West. "

American historians noted after World War II, concerning the annexation of Ruthenia to the Soviet Union: "The restored Czechoslovakia has regained these lands, i. e. the so-called Sudetenland, but has relinquished to the Soviet Russia the region known as Subcarpathian Russia. Linguistically, this belongs to Ukrainian stock. Religiously, it was Eastern Orthodox with allegiance to Rome, i. e. Uniate. The cession of this region to Soviet Russia has the tremendously important consequence of bringing political and military power of the Soviet into a part of Europe where it has never been before. For; the

Hungarians, it means the realization, politically and militarily, of a fear they have had since the days of Tsarist intervention in the Hungarian revolt(under KOSSUTH in 1849 ) namely inundation in a Slavic sea. " 28

Newsweek, an American weekly issued in several millions of copies, unveiled the Soviet tactics on December 6, 1945. In connection with a report that the Soviets withdrew 4 divisions from Hungary and Transsylvania, Newsweek remarked that, at the same time they increased the number of jet airplanes tremendously, at Papa and other air bases. On the other hand, the infantry was withdrawn to Ruthenia, creating pretext of peaceful coexistence with the population.

The Czech politicians delivered Ruthenia to the Soviets, well aware of the fact that Ruthenia is the gate to the Danubian basin in Europe. The Czech behavior


was not influenced by the defense of the Western way of life but only by the sentiments toward the "great Slavic brother". As a result, Ruthenia became the citadel of the Soviet imperialism in Eastern Europe.

No wonder that after these events, the Figaro of France noted the following in the issue of August 26, 1950: "Once, Austro-Hungary was able to defend Europe. In our days - how paradoxical - American soldiers have to be dispatched to the banks of the small Enns river in order to break the waves of the Panslav expansionism. "

The Soviet also annexed 13 pure Hungarian communities, which along with Ruthenia were possessed by the Czechs, to its 21 millions of square kilometers, They can be considered as purely Hungarian, as even the Czech census of 1930 was not able to find more than 145 Rusin residents, which is just slightly more than 0. 5%, among the 28, 000 population of these 13 communities.

However, the annexation of these villages was not of importance. The underlying factor of the Soviet appropriation was to obtain the border and transit station of Csap, for its strategic importance. 29 So the 13 communities were annexed by the Soviets without intervention of any international forum and without decision of a peace conference, not to mention the will of the people which is never important to the Soviets.

Since then, we know that the Soviet developed the railway station of Záhony on the Hungarian side of the Tisza river, to such an extent, that it became the largest freight station in Hungary.

Csap and also the other towns Kis-Rat, Nagy-Rat, Kistéglás, and Szürte, are located between the stations of Batyu and Ungvar toward Ungvar; Tisza-Ásvány and Salamon toward Csap. There are only a few small towns on the railway line of minor importance, between Ungvar and Nagykapos. The largest town is Csap, where the census of 1930 found only 4 Rusins among the 2,400 inhabitants, which is 1/600 of the total population.

Where did we get in the 20th century?. . .


Foot notes to Chapter II

1 C. A, MACCARTNEY: Hungary and her Successors, p. 206

2 Nyugati Magyarság(Western Hungarians), Canada, Vol, VI, No. 3

3 Bela ILLÉS: Kárpáti Rapszodia (Carpathian Rhapsody), Part II, P. 75

4 St. AULAIRE: Francois Joseph, p. 54; - as referred to by Dr, Tibor BARÁTH: A dunai táj államszerkezete francia szemléletben ( T h e Political Structure of the Danubian Area in Review of the French. )

5 MARTINE: "F e d e r ati o n", periodical, issue of Aug. -Sept. 1948, (Ref.; Dr, T. BARÁTH, op. cit. )

6 Hunter MILLER's Diary, p. 231-232

7 Dr. BARÁTH Tibor; Op. cit.

8 Endre SEBESTYEN: Kossuth. pp. 199-201 ,

9 Harold NICHOLSON: Peace Making, p. 273

10 Ibidem, p, 276-277

11 Sir R. DONALD: The Tragedy of Trianon, p, 294- 295.

12 Dr. Ferenc OLAY: A magyar müvelödés kálváriája, (The Calvary of the Hungarian Gulture. )

13 C. A. MACCARTNEY: Op. cit. , p. 213

14 Soym: The Ruthenian Diet. Parliament.

15 Anton SCRIMALI: L'Anquete etc au lieu du 8-10 Mars 1919; also C. A. MACGARTNEY, op. cit. p.218

16 G. A. MACCARTNEY: Op cit. p. 218

17 Hunter MILLER: Diary in Microfilm Photo duplication

18 S. A. KOVPAK: Notre Route Partisan (Our Partisan Way)

19 Robert LANSING: The Peace Negotiations, pp. 216-218

20 Harold NICHOLSON: The Intimate Papers of Colonel HOUSE, p, 69

21 Henri POZZI: Black Hand over Europe, p, 203

22 William MARTIN: Les Hommes d'Etat pendant la guerre. (The Statesmen during the War) p. 316

23 Narodny Listy (National Lists; the newspaper of KRAMAR), issue of 11 July 1924

24 Polish War Archives, Zr. Wt 2271-T. j24

25 Louis VILLAT: "Pro Hungaria", in the issue July 1927 of the periodical "Illustre"

26 Henri POZZI: Les Coupables (The Guilty Ones), P. 330

27 "Cekoslovenska Republica" (Czechoslovak Republic) issue 28 Oct, 1928

28 Floyd A. CAVE: The Origins and Consequences, p. 622

29 Based on information submitted by Dr. Károly BARTHA


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