|Senator Charles J. Hokky : Ruthenia|
R U T H E N I A
SPEARHEAD TOWARD THE WEST
"WE HAD TO CHOOSE BETWEEN PLEBICITE
AND THE CREATION OF CZECHOSLOVAKIA."
Tardieu: La Paiz (The Peace)
The territory of Ruthenia 1 belonged to Hungary for more than a thousand years. The Carpathian Mountains surrounded the giant amphitheater of the Central Danube area like a mighty fortification providing all-round protection. If Ruthenia is separated, the most important bastion of this fort will be destroyed. It will open a gigantic gap through which the enemy can easily enter.
This will open the way not only to the Hungarian Plains, but through Budapest toward Vienna, and further, toward the West. It will provide a similar access through Belgrade to the Balkan and in another direction toward the Adriatic and the Mediterranean Sea. In order to clear its way toward Central Europe, the Pan-Slavic Advance efforts had to destroy this valuable bastion of the fortification ring.
Ruthenia is the crucial spot not only of Central Europe, but also of entire Europe, with the same sensitivity as Panama, the small Central American countries, as Cuba for the United States. The possession of any one means the possession of a danger zone for the continent concerned.
The area is small, smaller than Montenegro was prior to 1918. To create an independent Lilliputian country of this size is a vast effort in the twentieth century. Federative connection with another country is a must, otherwise it would starve at the time of any economic crisis. As a part of the Carpathian Basin, it Fits perfectly in its natural frame from which it was torn out; and the geographic situation also determines the direction of normal federative efforts.
The total area is 12 639 square kilometers (4, 886 square miles); the population according to the census of 1910 was 397, 062, of which 56.13% was Ruthenian, 29. 22% Hungarian, 1. 3% Slovakian, 4 to 5% Rumanian, approximately the same percentage of German population; plus a total of 234 Czech. This area had to be given to the Czechs in order to satisfy the just (?) demands of 234 persons ! The rest did not count.....
Only a small part of the 500 thousand inhabitants of Ruthenia did know in 1918 where Bohemia was, and also only a small group of Czechs had knowledge of the whereabouts of Ruthenia. Yet this area was attached to Bohemia in the 20th Century, completely ignoring the geographical situation.
Frantisek NEMEC called the data of the Hungarian census "notoriously fraudulent". We can only reply: Everyone is forming opinion about others by actions of his own way of life. According to Lloyd GEORGE, all the data presented by the Czechs were false or falsified. The data of the census of 1930 were immediately proven as false by me at the parliament of Prague, mentioning a few serious fraudulent actions. The Czech census agents came from distant areas; nobody knew them, They marked the data with pencil, which they could change as they wanted, The forced several persons to register themselves as other than they were, for example: Hungarian state officials were forced to register as Czechs.
The census of 1921, showed, ".....the Czechs increased to 9513 - a clear proof of the inrush of officials - forerunners of a new invasion. " (Sir Donald) 2
The rivers: Tarac, Talabor, Nagyag, Borsova, Latorca, Ung all are flowing into the Tisza, toward the Hungarian Plains, a natural way for economic connections and the exchange of products. In fact, the timber of the immense forests of Ruthenia was transported mostly on these rivers to Hungary for this constituted the most inexpensive means of transportation. Both timber and salt are available above the needs in Russia, and the high costs of transport would increase the prices,
The natural resources did not compel the Pan-Slavs to gain possession of this area. Timber and salt are the only natural resources which could make this area desirable for any country. Both are badly needed in Hungary with its limited woodlands and, after the loss of the Transylvanian salt mines, with no salt mine at all. This explains the necessity of the common possession of the area by the Rusins and Hungarians: the products of Ruthenia had their market in Hungary, and by this, the population its source of living,
While the annexation of this area to Czechoslovakia was discussed, TARDIEU made a characteristic statement: "Those are vital needs of Czechoslovakia so they cannot be subjects of any argument" - he categorically declared, "in the name of the democracy",
By attaching Ruthenia to Czechoslovakia, the length of this country was increased by approximately 250 kilometers (155 miles). The area now extended from Körösmezö, the farthest point of Ruthenia in the East, to Eger (Cheb), farthest to West of Bohemia, at a length of 1400 kilometers (870 miles), If there had been any similar protuberant country adjoining to the West, it would have reached exactly to London. While Ruthenia as a part of Hungary increased the strategic importance of same, it made Czechoslovakia undefendable. Even the oversized armies of the Little Entente joined together would not have been sufficient for the defense of this stretched out Czechoslovakia.
The West had discovered the real strategic, geographic, political, and economical importance of Ruthenia when MASARYK and BENES topped their work, the treason of Europe, by delivering Ruthenia to the Soviet Union.
W. Gordon EAST pointed out the importance of Ruthenia, obtained by the Soviet Union, in his essay about the New Frontiers of the SovietUnion, published in the American review Foreign Affairs: "Ruthenia, as the Hungarian call it, Carpatho Ukraine as the Russians know it, is geographically and strategically more important than would appear from a glance at an atlas map . . It offers a natural passage between the Galician plateau and the Hungarian basin. Through its passes came the Magyars who occupied Hungary at the end of ninth century, The Tsar's armies which overthrew the so called revolution in Hungary in I849, and attacked the Austro-Hungarian Empire in I915, and the Red Army in 1945. Historically part of the Hungarian Kingdom, it passed to Czechoslovakia after World War I . and was returned to Hungary by Gzechoslovakia.....But to their enthnographic interest must clearly be added a strategical interest.....as well as a railway, with which the Ukraine SSR now has a common frontier.... 3
John C. CAMPBELL wrote in his essay about the territorial re-arrangement after World War II, also published in the Foreign Affairs; "As the Red Army swept westward into Central Europe in 1944 and 1945, the Soviet Union was able to establish complete control of the region which contained the great majority of Europe territorial disputes, It set its western frontier where it wished by a direct agreement with Czechoslovakia, the province of Sub-Carpathian Ruthenia, . " 4
BONNET former French Foreign Minister wrote in his book, Defense de la Paix de Washington au Qtxai , D'Orsay, published after World War I concerning the amount of trouble the Little Entente had caused, The nationalities which were transferred into this political unit desired to separate from same, But BENES was flirting with the idea of keeping the Sudeten-Germans captured even at the cost of a world war... "Ainsi serait-il injuste de dire qui cette cession ne fus consentie que par la crainte que nous inspirait 1'Allemagne puisque'en realite elle satisfaisait aussi la volonte manifeste des polulations sudetes. C'est evidement Pour une raison de meme ordre que la Tchecoslovaquie accepta de rendre a 1'URSS, en 1945 toute la Ruthenia peuple d'Ukrainiens que la Traite Versailles lui avait cedie, et qui presente un importance strategique considerable." (There will be some people who would call this injustice and that this transfer could not be recognized, and that we were inspired by the fear of the Germans; but the truth is, the Sudeten-German people had manifested their will. Maybe this is synonymous - BONNET remarked with sarcasm - or at least similar to the act that Czechoslovakia delivered Ruthenia and its people to the Soviet Union in 1945, which were given to them by Versailles Treaty, with considerable strategic importance. )" 5
Leland STOWE, the noted American publicist, recognized the great importance of Ruthenia, In his work "Conquest by Terror" he stated the following: "The key to the Kremlin's momentous communications offensive in Carpathian Ruthenia a Russian bridgehead assuring the military domination of all Central Europe". 6
With all these statements, the afore-mentioned authors fully verify the Hungarian point of view which urged the defense of the Carpathians against the Soviet menace, and made effort to convince the West that Rutheniais the gate for the Soviet, and once in the possession of the Soviets, would endanger not only Central Europe but the whole entity of Europe ! It is amazing that while a thinking human being is able to realize a problem from great distance, even from several thousands of miles, people like TARDIEU think that the rivers would flow backwards if they so desired. The limited perspective of such people completely ignored the geographical facts which had to be considered as determining factors. The geographical, economical, strategical, historical, and cultural reasons imperatively demand the union of Ruthenia with Hungary, and these reasons would hardly change in the future. The Kingdom of Hungary, containing the entire Carpathian mountains, provided a defense for Europe at a line from Danzig to the mouth of the Danube. After destroying the Hungarian bastion, the defense line in Europe was set back to the line from Trieste to the mouth of the Rhine. At the same time the role of Europe in the world history ceases! 7 . Taking out just one element from the ring like bastion of the Carpathians, would mean lethal danger to Europe. This is the importance of Ruthenia, not only for Hungary, but also for Europe.
This fact was ignored at Trianon and also in the second forced, peace treaty of Paris, thereby opening the gate for the Slavic flood which has carried an uninterrupted siege long before the start of World War II, in order to gain possession of this area. And the his- toric, economic, cultural, and geographic interests of the nations were completely disregarded. They considered the nations as lifeless objects, like cattle, or in the best case, as African slaves - who are being liberated nowadays one after the other - and their interests, opinions, and centuries-old traditions were considered as "quantite negligeable". The thousand years old possession, offered undisturbed existence to the immigrant guests, and always afforded the same right for them, which were the rights of the original population.
The machinations of the pan-slavs can be proven with masses of documents.
Maybe no one else dealt so accurately with the description of how Russia had involved Europe in World War I, as Henri POZZI, French author, His words are authentic considering the fact that his nation was fighting side by side with the Russians. "The Pan-Serbian secret organizations are directed and financially supported by Baron HARTWIG, ambassador to Belgrade. The "Ujedeninenje ili Smrt" (Unity or Death) is supported by him with 1500 Rubels monthly. On 19 June 1914 he submitted 3000 Rubels to Major Voja TANKOSIC for the purpose of the "Attempt of Sarajevo", 8
Since 1914 the Russians have caused all the misfortune of Europe. The "Attempt of Sarajevo" was prepared and performed by the Pan-Serbian secret organizations not only with the approval but also with the direct cooperation of the Russian ambassador to Belgrade: ". non seulement avec 1'approbation, mais avec collaboration du representant Russe aupres du gouvernement Serbe, " 9
It was proven by documents recently discovered, that the Russian mobilization had already begun on July 8. The Austro-Hungarian government received information from its intelligence on the morning of ;July 14, that Siberian troops were concentrated in the area of Kiev and that the military district of Kiev had been mobilized. On 16 July, information was received concerning the mobilization of the military districts of Moscow, Kasan, and Odessa. 10
There were already four coded telegrams in the possession of the French government, on the 8 July, sent by the Belgrade government to VESNIC, their ambassador to Paris; further there was a photograph of a letter, in which Colonel DIMITRIEVIC ( "Apis" ), thechief of the organization "Crna Ruka" (Black Hand), had given detailed instructions for his delegate to Paris, the Serbian military attaché. (The Serbian code was in the possession of the French government. ) 11
The Germans were correct in stating since 20 years that they mobilized only after July 26, 1914, in answer to the secret mobilization of Russia. (It is known from other sources, that their mobilization occurred only 13 hours after the French mobilization. )
The "Ukaz" (Order) of the Tsar, dated on July 26, concerning the general mobilization was nothing but deception: "... n'a ete qu'un trompe 1'oeil, un alibi cinique ecarter les responsibilites". (...was nothing but eyewash, as a cynical alibi to avoid the responsibilities. ) 12
SPALAIKOVIC, the Serbian ambassador to St. Petersburg, sent a telegram to his government, on the 22 July, that SAZONOV requested the maximum increase of military preparations..... The transportation of Siberian troops to Europe had been completed. Upon departure of POINCARE and VIVIANI the immediate mobilization of several districts will be effected. 13
On July 24, the council of Ministers at Krasnoye Selo issued orders to mobilize the military districts of Moscow, Kasan, and Kiev, also to activate alert of the Baltic and Black Sea Fleets. ( 2/3 of the first line forces of Russia. ) The French government was not notified. 14
It was a Czech man who pointed out that France and England did not want to destroy the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy." We know from the memories of President POINCARE that in 1913, and probably also later, France considered Austro-Hungary to be a State, the existence of which- was in the interest of France, Likewise, England had no reasons for being hostile in any way to Austria-Hungary. " 15
"From the beginning, the most favorable results were secured by the Czechoslovak movement in Russia owing to the fact that that state was directly interested in the weakening of the Austrian Empire its immediate and most dangerous competitor in the Balkans." 16
And also because of the common Pan-Slavic Ideas..
Foot notes to Chapter I,
1 Ruthenia: Carpathian Ruthenia Czech: Podkarpatska Rus region E. Cen. Europe, S of Carpathian Mts; before World War I part of Hungary; became province of Czechoslovakia 1918, part of Hungary 1939-45; ceded 1945 to the Russians, who call it Zakarpatskaya. (Webster's New Gollegiate Dictionary, 2d Ed., 1959 p, 1066)
2 Sir R, DONALD: The Tragedy of Trianon p. 39.
3 W, Gordon EAST: The New Frontiers of the Soviet Union - Foreign Affairs, Yol, 29, N, 4" p. 599 (July 1951 )
4 John C, CAMPBELL: The European Territorial Settlement, - Foreign Affairs, Vol. 26, No. 1, , p. 199,
5 Above mentioned book of G, BONNET, p. 327,
6 Leland STOWE: Conquest by Terror, p. 33.
7 Geza Teleki: Budapest földrajzi helyzete (The Geographical Situation of Budapest) - ÚJ Magyar Út (New Hungarian Way) Vol, 6. , No, 2-3,
8 Henri POZZI: Les Coupables (The Guilty Ones), p. 14.
9 Ibidem, p, 20
10 Ibidem, p, 25
11 Ibidem, p, 47
12 Ibidem, p. 57
13 Ibidem, p, 60
14 Ibidem, p, 63
15 Jaroslav PAPOUSEK: The Czechoslovak Nation's Struggle for Independence Foreword, p, 5,
16 Ibidem, p, 18
|Senator Charles J. Hokky : Ruthenia|