|The New Central Europe|
Introduction: From Habsburgs to Soviets -- and Beyond
1. Henry Wickham Steed, "Introduction," The Making of a State, by Dr. Thomas Garrigue Masaryk (New York: Frederich A. Stokes Company, 1927), XX.
2. Hans Kohn, PanSlavism: Its History and Ideology (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1953), 210- 11.
3. Winston S. Churchill, The Second World War: Triumph and Tragedy (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1953), 750. [Cassell]
4. Sir Duff Cooper's letter in the Daily Telegraph (London), April 18, 1950. See also Wickham Steed's letter in The Times Literary Supplement, September 24, 1954.
1 The New Europe That Failed
1. Winston S. Churchill, The Second World War: The Gathering Storm (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1948), 38, 42- 43. [Cassell]
2. L. B. Namier, Europe in Decay: A Study in Disintegration (London: Macmillan, 1950), 153.
3. Jacques Bainville, Les conséquences politiques de la paix (Paris: Nouvelle Libraire Nationale, 1920), 172- 73.
4. Papers and Documents Relating to the Foreign Relations of Hungary 11 (published as a manuscript by the Royal Hungarian Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Budapest, n.d.), 225-41 passim.
5. Edward Hallett Carr, German- Soviet Relations Between the Two World Wars (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1951), 61. Oxford University Press]
6. However, as Professor Craig pointed out, Rathenau's policy basically sought understanding with the West. Rathenau was persuaded to sign the Rapallo Treaty by Baron Maltzen, the head of the Eastern Division of the German Foreign Ministry, an enthusiast for Soviet- German ties. Rathenau's cool reception by the Western Allies also contributed to his "surrender." Cf.
Gordon A. Craig, From Bismarck to Adenauer: Aspects of German Statecraft (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1958), 68-69.
7. Deutscher, Stalin: A Political Biography (New York and London: Oxford University Press, 1949), 390.
8. On this subject, see Hans W. Gatzke, Stresemann and the Rearmament of Germany (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1954).
9. Deutscher, Stalin, 409.
10. Ibid., 410. The Communist International took a no less critical view of the "imperialist" Trianon Treaty which dis-membered Hungary In the spirit of "proletarian" justice, the Fifth Congress of the Comintern in 1924 advocated independence for the Slovaks, a special regime of autonomy for Transylvania, and a frontier revision by which Hungarian- speaking areas of Slovakia Romania and Yugoslavia were to be added to the Hungarian state. See Walter Kolarz Russia and Her Colonies (New York: Praeger, 1952), 305. [G. Philip]
2 Federalist Experiments
1. José Ortega y Gasset, The Revolt of the Masses (New York: Norton, 1932), 200. [Allen & Unwin]
2. Robert Schuman, "France and Europe," Foreign Affairs, XXXI, 3 (April, 1953), 349- 50.
3. Oscar Jászi, Revolution and Counter- Revolution in Hungary(London: King & Son, 1 924), IX.
4 Ibid., 38.
5. Cf. C. A. Macartney, National States and National Minorities (London: Oxford University Press, 1934), 276- 77.
6. Oscar Jászi, "The Significance of Thomas G. Masaryk for the Future," reprinted from Journal of Central European Affairs, X, I (April, 1950), 6- 7.
7. Thomas Garrigue Masaryk, The Making of a State: Memories and Observations, 1914- 1918 (New York: Frederick A. Stokes,1928), 364- 65. [Allen & Unwin]; see also Feliks Gross, Crossroads of Two Continents: A Democratic Federation of East- Central Europe (NY: Columbia University Press, 1945) 13- 14. [Oxford University Press]
8. Cf. David Mitrany, Marx Against the Peasant (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1951), 138, 250. [Weidenfeld & Nicolson]
9. Cf. Josef Hanc, Tornado Across Eastern Europe (New York: Greystone Press, 1942), 113. [Museum Press]
10. Nikolaus von Horthy, Ein Leben für Ungarn (Bonn: Athenaum, 1953), 168.
11. Count Stephen Bethlen, The Treaty of Trianon and European Peace (London: Longmans, 1934), 176.
12. Harry Nichols Howard, "The Little Entente and the Balkan Entente,", in Czechoslovakia, ed. Robert J. Kerner (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1949), 384.
3 The Revisionist Challenge
1. Quoted in Hubert Ripka, East and West (London: Lincoln- Prager, 1944), 41.
2. I. Deutscher, Stalin: A Political Biography (New York and London: Oxford University Press, 1949), 423.
3. E. H. Carr, International Relations Between the Two World Wars (London: Macmillan, 1948), 220.
4. Hans Kohn, The Twentieth Century: A Midway Account of the Western World (New York: Macmillan, 1949), 211. [Gollancz]
4 Czechs and Hungarians
1. A. J. P. Taylor, "Czechoslovakia and Europe: The Foreign Policy of Dr. Benes," in Edward Benes: Essays and Reflections Presented on the Occasion of his Sixtieth Birthday, ed. Jan Opocensky (London: Allen & Unwin, 1945), 163- 64.
2. Cf. Oscar Jászi, Revolution and Counter- Revolution in Hungary(London: King & Son, 1924), 37, 55- 57, 97- 98. Also Memoirs of MichaelKárolyi: Faith Without Illusion (London: Jonathan Cape, 1956), 155.
3. Stephen D. Kertész, Diplomacy in a Whirlpool: HungaryBetween Nazi Germany and Soviet Russia (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1953), 20.
4. Edward Táborsky, "Benes and the Soviets," Foreign Affairs, XXVII, 2 (January 1949), 304; see below, Chapter 15? "Benes and the Russians,"
5. Rustem Vámbéry, The Hungarian Problem (New York: The Nation, 1942), 19.
6. Cf. Count Stephen Bethlen, "Szent István napján," Pesti Napló, August 20, 1937; idem, The Treaty of Trianon and European Peace (London: Longmans, 1934).
7. S. Harrison Thomson, Czechoslovakia in European History (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1953; revised edition of the 1943 first edition), 5. [Oxford University Press]
8. Edvard Benes, Rec k Slovákom o nasej národnej prítomnosti a budúcnosti (Bratislava, 1934); idem, Reden an die Deutschen in der C.S.R. (Aussig, 1935).
5 Collapse in Central Europe
1. Cf. Henry L. Roberts, "Diplomacy of Colonel Beck" in The Diplomats, ed. Gordon A. Craig and Felix Gilbert (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1953), 612. [Oxford University Press]; see also Zygmunt J. Gasiorowski, "Did Pilsudski Attempt to Initiate a Preventive War in 1933?" The Journal of Modern History, XXVII, 2 (June 1955), 151.
2. Cf. Karl Renner, "Austria: Key for War and Peace," Foreign Affairs, XXVI, 4 (July 1948), 596- 97.
3. Sir Lewis Namier, In the Nazi Era (London: Macmillan, 1952), 120.
4. Winston S. Churchill, The Second World War: The Gathering Storm (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1948), 221, 242. [Cassell]
5. Ibid., 254- 55; cf. Lord Halifax, Fullness of Days (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1957), 196.
6. Churchill, The Gathering Storm, 293.
7. Cf. John W. Wheeler- Bennett, Munich: Prologue to Tragedy (New York: Duell, Sloan 8] Pearce, 1948), 32. [Macmillan]
6 MUNICH: THE TRAGEDY OF APPEASEMENT
1. Winston Churchill, The Second World War: The Gathering Storm (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1948) 319, 310- 12 passim. [Cassell]
2. Ibid., 302.
3. Edward Táborsky, "Benes and the Soviets," Foreign Affairs, XXVII, 2 (January 1949), 306.
4. Documents on British Foreign Policy, 1918- 1939, Third Series, 1, 1938; 11, 1938; ed. E. L. Woodward, Rohan Buttler, Margaret Lambert (London: H. M. Stationery Office, 1949).
5. Cf. Sir Lewis Namier, In the Nazi Era (London: Macmillan, 1952), 163.
6. Cf. Edward Táborsky, "The Triumph and Disaster of Edward Benes," Foreign Affairs, XXXVI, 14 (July 1958), 673 The author, Benes's wartime secretary, described Benes's state of mind between October 1938 and March 1939 in these terms: ". . . he assumed that Hitler would leave the crippled and helpless torso of Czechoslovakia alone and turn to his next victim. . . Hitler's destruction of what was left of Czechoslovakia in March 1939 came therefore as a terrible shock."
7. R. W. Seton- Watson, From Munich to Danzig (London: Methuen, 1939), 116, 118.
8. Churchill, The Gathering Storm, 322.
9. A.J.P. Taylor, "Czechoslovakia and Europe: The Foreign Policy of Dr. Benes," in Edvard Benes: Essays and Reflections Presented on the Occasion of his Sixtieth Birthday, ed. Jan Opocensky (London: Allen & Unwin, 1944), 161.
10. C. A. Macartney, Problems of the Danube Basin (Cambridge: The University Press, 1944), 103.
11. Oscar Halecki, Borderlands of Western Civilization: A History of East Central Europe (NY: The Ronald Press Company, 1952), 435.
7 FROM MUNICH TO MOSCOW
1. Gyula Szekf_, Forradalom után (Budapest: Cserépfalvi, 1947), 69.
2. Cf. L. B. Namier, Europe in Decay (London: Macmillan, 1950), 250- 58 passim.
3. Falsifiers of History: An Historical Document on the Origins of World War II (NY: Committee for Promotion of Peace, ), 37.
4. Cf. Edvard Benes, Pameti: Od Mníchova k nové válce a k novému vítezství (Prague: Orbis, 1948), 65 ff., 295; idem, Nová slovanská politika (Prague: 1948), 44, 52. For further details on this subject, see below, Chapter 9.
"Federalist Interlude," and Chapter 15, "Benes and the Russians." All quotations from Benes's Pameti (Memoirs) are the author's own translations; an English edition of the Benes memoirs, by Godfrey Lias, is now available, Memoirs of Dr. Edvard Benes: From Munich to New War and New Victory (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, ) [Allen & Unwin]; see Stephen Borsody, "Benes, Memoirs," Political Science Quarterly, LXXl, I (March 1956), 143-46.
5. Benes, Pameti, 203- 04; 114- 22 passim.
6. Ibid ., 203- 04.
7. Ibid., 208.
8. Ibid., 226.
9. Ibid., 302- 33 passim.
10. MichaelKárolyi's "Introduction" to G. Pálóczy- Horváth, In Darkest Hungary(London: Gollancz, 1945), 18.
11. Benes, Pameti, 462.
12. Cf. C. A. Macartney, A History of Hungary 1929- 1945,1 (New York: Praeger, ), 83.
13. Walter Kolarz, Myths and Realities in Eastern Europe (London: Lindsay Drummond, 1946), 138. Another Sudeten German of unimpeachable democratic loyalty, the Socialist politician\Wenzel Jaksch, offered a very different interpretation which appeared, however, less convincing. The overwhelming majority of Czechoslovakia's multinational population, according to Jaksch,
was loyal to the state, while the main cause of Czechoslovakia's capitulation was the defeatism of President Benes and Premier Hodza. Cf. Wenzel Jaksch, Europas Weg nach Potsdam: Schuld und Schicksal im Donauraum (Stuttgart: Deutsche Verlags- Anstalt, 1958), 317- 19, 321, 324- 25.
14. Edvard Benes, Sest let exilu a druhé svetové války: Reci, projevy a dokumenty z r. 1938- 45 (Prague: Orbis, 1946), 59.
8 HITLER'S NEW ORDER
1. Cf. Nazi-Soviet Relations, 1939-1941 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of State, 1948), 163.
2. Sumner Welles, The Time for Decision (New York: Harper, 1944), 78, 79, 141. [Hamish Hamilton]
3. Nazi- Soviet Relations, 255 ff.
4. Hugh Seton- Watson, The East European Revolution (New York: Praeger, 1951), 66. [Methuen]
5. Nazi- Soviet Relations. 316 ff.
6. Falsifiers of History (New York: Committee for Promotion of Peace ), 51, 59.
9 FEDERALIST INTERLUDE
1 . Cf. Piotr S. Wandycz, Czechoslovak-Polish Confederation and the Great Powers: 1940- 43 (Bloomington: Indiana University Publications in the Slavic and East European Series, 1956), 105; István Borsody, Benes (Budapest: Athenaeum, ), 201. See also above, Ch. 7, "From Munich to Moscow," and below, Ch. 15, "Benes and the Russians." For the wartime federal plans, see Feliks Gross, Crossroads of Two Continents: A Democratic Federation of East- Central Europe (NY: Columbia University Press, 1945). [Oxford University Press]
2. Winston S. Churchill, The Second World War: The Gathering Storm (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1948), 10, 17. [Cassell]
3. Joseph Stalin, Problems of Leninism (Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1940), 337- 38.
4. Winston S. Churchill, The Second World War: The Grand Alliance (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1949), 629. [Cassell]
5. S. Harrison Thomson, Czechoslovakia in European History (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1953), 426. [Oxford University Press]
6. Robert E. Sherwood, Rooseveltand Hopkins (New York: Harper, 1948) 714. [Eyre & Spottiswoode]
7. Edvard\s+Benes, Pameti: Od Mníchova k nové válce a k novému vítezství (Prague: Orbis, 1948), 213 ff.
8. Ibid., 330. Italics added.
9. Ibid., 285. Benes's italics.
10. For further details on this subject, see below, Chapter 15, "Benes and the Russians."
11. Oscar Jászi, "Postwar Pacification in Europe," in Federation: The Coming Structure of World Government, ed. Howard O. Eaton (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1944), 147-48, 153; cf. Edvard\s+Benes, "The Organization of Post- War Europe," Foreign Affairs. XX, 2 (January 1942), 237- 38.
12. Winston S. Churchill, The Second World War: The Hinge of Fate (Boston: Houghton Mifflin 1950). [Cassell]
13. Sumner Welles, Seven Decisions That Shaped History (NY: Harper, 1950), 184. [Hamish Hamilton]
14. Churchill, The Hinge of Fate, 802- 07 passim.
15. The Memoirs of Cordell Hull (NY: Macmillan, 1948), 1463. [Hodder & Stoughton]
16. Ibid., 1298- 99 passim.
17. Ibid., 1234.
18. See below, Chapter 15, "Benes and the Russians."
19. The Memoirs of Cordell Hull, 1642.
20. Winston S. Churchill, The Second World War: Triumph and Tragedy (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1953), 158. [Cassell]
21. Winston S. Churchill, The Second World War: Closing the Ring (Boston: Houghton Mifflin 1951), 360, 400-03 passim. [Cassell]
10 EUROPE'S COMING PARTITION
1. Robert E. Sherwood, Rooseveltand Hopkins (NY: Harper, 1948), 748. [Eyre & Spottiswoode]
2. Chester Wilmot, The Struggle for Europe (NY: Harper, 1952) 634. [Collins]
3. Winston S. Churchill, The Second World War: Triumph and Tragedy (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1953), 158. [Cassell]
4. The Memoirs of Cordell Hull (NY: Macmillan, 1948), 1163. [Hodder & Stoughton]
5. Ibid., 1465.
6. Edward Hallett Carr, Conditions of Peace (NY: Macmillan, 1942), 210- 1. [Macmillan]
7. The Secret Treaties and Understandings. ed. F. Seymour Cocks (London: Union of Democratic Control, 1918), 68.
8. Norman Angell, "Why We Lost the Peace," The New Leader (April 14, 1952), 16- 18.
9. The Memoirs of Cordell Bull, 1166- 67 passim.
10. Ibid., 1170- 72 passim.
11. Sumner Welles, Where Are We Heading (NY: Harper, 1946), 151. [Hamish Hamilton]
12. The Memoirs of Cordell Hull. 1460.
13. David J. Dallin, The Big Three: The United States, Britain, Russia (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1945), 129, 131. [Allen & Unwin]
14. See Hans Kohn, Pan- Slavism: Its History and Ideology (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1953), chap. 3: "Pan- Slavism and the World Wars 1905- 1950."
15. General Gundorov's report to the Belgrade Slav Congress, in Slovansky Sjezd v Belehrade r. 1946 (Prague: Orbis, 1947), 122.
16. Kohn, Pan- Slavism, 234.
17. Milan Hodza, Memorandum to the U.S. State Department, "Europe at the Crossroads," in the Bulletin of the International Peasant Union (January- February 1954), 14- 18. For Hodza's views on federation, see his wartime book, Federation in Central Europe: Reflections and Reminiscences (London: Jarrolds, 1942).
18. Hubert Ripka, East and West (London: Lincoln- Prager), 57, 59-60.
19. A.J.P. Taylor, The Course of German History (New York: Coward McCann, 1946), 9. [Hamish Hamilton]
11 CHURCHILL'S BARGAIN
1. The Memoirs of Cordell Hull (New York: Macmillan, 1948), 1436. [Hodder & Stoughton]
2. Nicholas Kállay, Hungarian Premier: A Personal Account of a Nation's Struggle in the Second World War (NY: Columbia University Press, 1954), 381-82. [Oxford University Press]
3. Winston S. Churchill, The Second World War: Triumph and Tragedy (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1953), 73, 74, 78. [Cassell]
4. Ibid., 148.
5. Ibid., 227.
6. Ibid., 73-81 passim; see also The Memoirs of Cordell Bull, 1452-59 passim.
7. Churchill, Triumph and Tragedy, 89.
8. C. A. Macartney, A History of Hungary 1929- 1945, 1 (NY: Praeger, ), 3.
9. Churchill, Triumph and Tragedy, 208.
10. Ibid., 227.
11. Ibid., 240- 41.
12. Edward R. Stettinius, Jr., Rooseveltand the Russians: The Yalta Conference (New York: Doubleday, 1949), 23.
12 YALTA: TRAGEDY OF LIBERATION
1. Winston S. Churchill, The Second World War: Triumph and Tragedy (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1953), 278-79. [Cassell]
2. Ibid., 337, 341.
3. Edward R. Stettinius, Jr., Rooseveltand the Russians: The Yalta Conference (New York: Doubleday, 1949), 68.
4. Ibid., 36.
5. Churchill, Triumph and Tragedy, 365.
6. Ibid., 420.
7. Ibid., 353; see also Philip E. Mosley, Hopes and Failures: American Policy Toward East Central Europe, 1941-1947," in The Fate of East Central Europe, ed. Stephen D. Kertész (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1956), 54 ff.
8. See below, Chapter 13, "Stalin's Triumph."
9. See below, Chapter 15, "Benes and the Russians."
10. Henry S. Commager, "Concessions to Reality, Was Yalta a Calamity? A Debate," NY Times Magazine (August 3, 1952), 48.
11. Karl Mundt, speaking on the NBC television program "The American Forum," on March 27, 1955.
12. Elliot Roosevelt As He Saw It (New York: Duell, Sloan & Pearce, 1946), XVIII.
13. Rexford G. Tugwell, The Democratic Roosevelt A Biography of Franklin D. Roosevelt(NY: Doubleday, 1957), 679.
14. Chester Wilmot, The Struggle for Europe (New York: Harper, 1952), 640. [Collins]
15. Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., "Wilmot's War, or 'Churchill was Right," The Reporter (April 29, 1952), 37.
16. Winston S. Churchill, The Second World War: Closing the Ring (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1951), 344. [Cassell]
17. Ibid., 346.
18. Ibid., 368; on Churchill's "volatile" views on Russia, see Herbert Feis, Churchill, Roosevelt Stalin (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1957), 468- 69. [Oxford University Press]
19. Churchill, Triumph and Tragedy, 148; see above, Chapter 11, "Churchill's Bargain."
20. See below, Chapter 13, "Stalin's New Order."
21. Churchill, Triumph and Tragedy, 233.
22. Stettinius, Rooseveltand the Russians, 300-01.
23. George F. Kennan, American Diplomacy: 1900- 1950 (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1951), 85.
24. Hanson W. Baldwin, Great Mistakes of the War (New York: Harper, 1949), 10. [Alvin Redman]
25. Hajo Holborn, "American Foreign Policy and European Integration," World Politics, VI, I (October 1953), 56; idem, The Political Collapse of Europe (New York: Knopf, 1951), 176.
26. Paul- Henri Spaak, "Creating a New Europe: It Must Be Done," New York Times Magazine (April 20, 1952), 12.
27. Hugh Seton- Watson, The East European Revolution (New York: Praeger, 1951), 166. [Methuen]
28. Wallace Carroll, Persuade or Perish (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1948), 373.
13 STALIN'S NEW ORDER
1. Deutscher, Stalin. A Political Biography (New York and London: Oxford University Press, 1949), 536-37.
2. Hugh Seton-Watson, The East European Revolution (NY:
Praeger, 1951), 169- 71. [Methuen]; idem, From Lenin to Malenkov: The History of World Communism (New York: Praeger, 1953), 248-49.
3. H. R. Trevor- Roper, "The Politburo Tries a New Tack," New York Times Magazine (October 19, 1947), 67.
4. Philip E. Mosely, Face to Face with Russia (New York: Foreign Policy Association, Headline Series, No. 70, 1948), 23.
5. Edward R. Stettinius, Jr., Rooseveltand the Russians: The Yalta Conference (New York: Doubleday, 1949), 232.
6. On Benes's dealings with the Soviets, motivated by "self-
righteous and narrow- minded nationalism," see the documented article by Vojtech Mastny, The Benes- Stalin- Molotov Conversations in December 1943: New Documents," Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas, XX, 3 (1972), 367-402.
7. King Peter IIof Yugoslavia, A King's Heritage (New York: Putnam, 1954), 272. [Cassell]
8. Winston S. Churchill, The Second World War: Triumph and Tragedy (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1953), 420- 21, 422. [Cassell]
9. Ibid., 423.
10. Ibid., 425.
11. Ibid., 446- 54 passim.
12. Robert E. Sherwood, Rooseveltand Hopkins (New York: Harper, 1948), 900, 905- 06. [Eyre & Spottiswoode]
13. Edward J. Rozek, Allied Wartime Diplomacy: A Pattern in Poland (NY: Wiley, 1958), 387, 390. Cf. Churchill, Triumph and Tragedy, 583.
14. Churchill, Triumph and Tragedy, 503.
15. Ibid., 426, 432, 456- 57 passim, 501 03 passim, 573.
16. Ibid., 571, 573, 601, 603.
17. Ibid., 569- 70.
18. Ibid., 672.
19. Ibid., 455.
14 FROM POTSDAM TO PRAGUE
1. James F. Byrnes, Speaking Frankly (New York: Harper, 1947), 68, 71. [Heinemann]
2. Winston S. Churchill, The Second World War: Triumph and Tragedy (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1953), 636, 665. [Cassell]
3. Ibid., 654.
4. Cf. Byrnes, Speaking Frankly, 100-01, 105.
5. Sumner Welles, Seven Decisions That Shaped History (New York: Harper, 1950), 208. [Hamish Hamilton]
6. Hugh Seton- Watson, The East European Revolution (New York: Praeger, 1951), 170. [Methuen]
7. Ibid., 183- 84.
8. John C. Campbell, "The European Territorial Settlement," Foreign Affairs, XXVI, I (October 1947), 213- 14.
9. See the opinion of Zbynek Zeman, The Masaryks: The Making of Czechoslovakia (NY: Harper & Row, 1976), 213: "There was no need for assassins to disturb the peace of the ancient cavernous palace in which Masaryk spent his last night. He knew, as well as his adversaries did, that his life was at an end..." This refutation of the assassination theory, like my own, did not disturb the myth makers. They felt fortified by the investigation ordered of the circumstances of Masaryk's death by the Dub_ek regime but stopped by the Russians following their invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968. The suicide version was corroborated by a British government paper made public in January 1979. It described Masaryk on the eve of his death, in a report by the British Ambassador to Prague, as a broken man, despondent, bitter over the bankruptcy of Czechoslovakia's Soviet orientation.
10. Seton- Watson, The East European Revolution, 190.
11. Hubert Ripka, Czechoslovakia Enslaved: The Story of the Communist Coup d'État (London: Gollancz, 1950), 11.
12. Cf. Hamilton Fish Armstrong Tito and Goliath (New York: Macmillan, 1951) , 53- 56, 173. [Gollancz]
13. Quoted in Otto Friedman The Break- up of Czech Democracy(London: Gollancz, 1950), 97.
14. Ripka, Czechoslovakia Enslaved, 10- 11.
15 Benes AND THE RUSSIANS
1. Edvard\s+Benes, Pameti: Od Mníchova k nové válce a k novému vítezství (Prague: Orbis, 1948), 213 ff.
2. See above, Chapter 9, "Federalist Failures."
3. Benes, Pameti, 357.
4. Ibid., 303.
5. Otto Friedman The Break- up of Czech Democracy(London: Gollancz, 50), 22.
6. Cf. Edvard\s+Benes, Nová slovanská politika (Prague: Orbis, 1946).
7. Friedman The Break- up of Czech Democracy 24.
8. Benes, Pameti, 362 ff.
9. Hans Kohn, The Twentieth Century: A Midway Account of the Western World (New York: Macmillan, 1949), 212. [Gollanz]
10. Edward Táborsky, "Benes and the Soviets," Foreign Affairs, XXVII, 2 (January 1949), 311.
11. Benes, Pameti, 395- 96.
12. Táborsky, "Benes and the Soviets," 310.
13. R. W. Seton- Watson, Masaryk in England (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1943), 133; and T. G. Masaryk, Nová Evropa: Stanovisko slovanské, (Prague: 1920), 143.
14. Ibid., 144.
15. Cf. Documents on the Expulsion of the Sudeten Germans (Munich: University Press, 1953); Hungaryand the Conference of Paris, II and IV (Budapest: Hungarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 1947); The Deportation of the Hungarians of Slovakia(Budapest: Hungarian Society of Foreign Affairs, 1947); István D. Kertész, "Minority Population Exchanges: Czechoslovakia and Hungary" American Perspective (June 1948), 138 44. For a pro- Slav interpretation of the eviction of the Germans, see Elizabeth Wiskemann, Germany's Eastern Neighbors: Problems Relating to the Oder- Neisse Line and the Czech Frontier Regions (London: Oxford University Press, 1956).
16. F. A. Voigt, "Orderly and Humane," Nineteenth Century and After, DCCCXXV (November 1945), 20041.
17. Oscar Jászi, "Danubia: Old and New," reprinted from Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, XCIII, I (April 1949), 14.
18. Oscar\s+Jászi, "The Significance of Thomas G. Masaryk for the Future,"
reprinted from Journal of Central European Affairs, X, I (April 1950), 7. Furthermore it should be noted that pre- World War I Hungarys sins against the national minorities were of a very different kind (and much less grave) than those of post- World War 11 Czechoslovakia. Hungarytried to become a homogeneous nation- state by means of assimilation, while Czechoslovakia chose to attain the same end by expelling the minorities. In view of these differences, the double standard in judging the Czech and Hungarian sins of nationalism, as noted by Jászi, becomes even more striking.
19. Cf. Taborsky, "Benes and the Soviets,", 306, 314.
20. Friedman The Break- up of Czech Democracy 103; cf. also Vacláv E. Mares, "Could the Czechs Have Remained Free?" Current History (September 1952), 154.
21. Czech exiles, attempting to vindicate Benes's Russian policy, have considerably played up Benes' doubts about Stalin. See for instance Edward Taborsky, "The Triumph and Disaster of Edvard\s+Benes," Foreign Affairs, XXXVI, 4 (July 1958), 675, 681.
22. Cf. R. W. Seton- Watson, Masaryk in England, 126- 27.
16 THE IRON CURTAIN AND THE COLD WAR
1. Milovan Djilas, The New Class: An Analysis of The Communist System (NY: Praeger, 1957), 35,38,70. [Thames & Hudson]
2. Apologetic explanations of Czech passivity were offered by Czech exiles. According to one such interpretation, the Czechs, as people with democratic traditions, "may rationalize themselves into any compromise and away from the barricades." Furthermore, the Czechs "know the West," therefore they knew that they cannot expect help from the West. See Ivo Duchacek, "A 'Loyal' Satellite: The Case of Czechoslovakia," Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, CCCXVII (May 1958), 116- 17.
3. Imre Nagy on Communism: In Defense of the New Course (New York: Praeger, 1957), 63, 244. [Thames & Hudson]
4. See above, Chapter 14, "From Potsdam to Prague."
5. Imre Nagy on Communism, 40, 64.
6. For an interpretation giving full justice to the democratic aspirations of the Hungarian Revolution see Francois Fejt_, Behind the Rape of Hungary(NY: McKay, 1957); Bill Lomax, Hungary1956 (NY: St. Martin's Press, 1976). [Allison & Busby]
7. In contrast with its impotence in the field of action, the United Nations did splendid research work in providing information on the Hungarian Revolution. See Report of the Special Committee on the Problem of Hungary General Assembly, Official Records: Eleventh Session, Supplement No.18 (A- 3592) (New York: Columbia University Press, 1957).
8. Max Beloff's letter to the New York Times, November 18, 1958.
9. Cf. Raymond Aron, "Second Thoughts on Suez," The New Leader (January 28, 1957), 19.
10. "East Wind, West Wind," The Economist (November 30, 1957), 752. More recently, George F. Kennan somewhat revised his disengagement views, envisaging as an immediate task "the definition of Germany's supra- national obligations within the European community as an integral part of any initial agreement on German unification and disengagement of Europe." It is possible, he wrote, that "such problems as the formulation of a general European security pact, the future scope of the institutions of the European community, and probably even the bitter question of Germany's eastern border "may have to be
faced simultaneously with the first steps towards a general disengagement." This view, unlike the idea of disengagement itself found, unfortunately, no echo in Western public opinion, although the integration of Germany into the European community (the "European" or "federalistic," solution, as I call it below)
may well be the key to solving the East- West conflict by peaceful means. See George F. Kennan, "Disengagement Revisited," Foreign Affairs, XXXVII, 2 (January 1959), 197- 98. Also, for a forceful endorsement of European federation, as a solution of the German problem as well as the East- West conflict, see Eugene V. Rostow, "Negotiating a Berlin Settlement: A 'European' Approach to Germany," The New Republic, CXL, 8 (February 23, 1959), 16- 18.
11. The Iron Curtain had blotted out the West's perception of the problem of Hungarys dismemberment, which in the inter- war period was one of the great issues of European politics. By contrast, national minority problems of much lesser magnitude, those of Cyprus or Tyrol, for instance, commanded world attention: to say nothing of German national reunification, which was permanently on the agenda of international politics. For detailed ethnic statistics of post- World War 11 Central and Eastern Europe, see US Satellite Demography," News from Behind the Iron Curtain, IV, 2 (February 1955), 27 ff; and 111. (March 1958), 25 ff; also István Révay, "Hungarian Minorities Under Communist Rule," in Facts About Hungary comp. Imre Kovács(NY: Hungarian Committee, 1958), 240-41.
12. Cf. Palacky's letter to the Frankfurt Parliament of 1848, as quoted in Hans Kohn, Pan- Slavism: Its History and Ideology (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1953), 67.
13 . Oscar\s+Jászi, "Danubia: Old and New," reprinted from Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, XCIII, I (April 1949), 26- 27.
14. "The Failure of the Habsburg Monarchy," The Times Literary Supplement (April 27, 1951). A review of Robert A. Kann's book The Multinational Empire.
17 COLD WAR BECOMES DETENTE
1. With reference to Eastern Europe, all revisionists share a common point of view as summed up by Charles S. Maier: ". . . there was no legitimacy for any American concern with affairs in that distant region. However ugly the results in Eastern Europe, they should not really have worried Washington. Russia should
have been willingly accorded unchallenged primacy because of her massive wartime sacrifices, her need for territorial security, and the long history of the area's reactionary politics and bitter anti- bolshevism. Only when Moscow's deserved primacy was contested did Stalin embark upon a search for exclusive control." Charles S. Maier, "Revisionism and the Interpretation of Cold War Origins," Perspectives in American History, IV (1970), 317.
2. John C. Campbell, American Policy Toward Communist Eastern Europe (Minneapolis: The University of Minnesota Press, 1965), 3.
3. For an outspokenly critical evaluation of American policy toward the Soviet satellites, see Bennett Kovrig, The Myth of Liberation: East- Central/Europe in U. S. Diplomacy and Politics Since 194] (Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1973).
4. Zbigniew Brzezinski and William E. Griffith, "Peaceful Engagement in Eastern Europe," Foreign Affairs, XXXIX, 4 (July 1961), 642- 54. Cf. Kovrig, The Myth of Liberation, 238- 39, 252- 53. As a result of detente, the Brzezinski- Griffith article envi-saged the emergence ultimately of a "neutral belt of states" in the Middle Zone which, "like the Finnish, would enjoy genuine popular freedom of choice in internal policy while not being hos-tile to the Soviet Union and not belonging to Western military alliance." The Johnson speech was less visionary; it appealed in fact to the "powerful forces of national pride" of the East Europeans, forces which were not likely to generate among East Europeans the kind of cooperation needed for the creation of a neutral belt of states. Before his joint article with Griffith, Brzezinski had published another discussion related to the same subject in the April 1961 issue of Foreign Affairs, "The Chal-lenge of Change in the Soviet Bloc."
5. For a point of view, relating the anti- Communist cold war attitude toward Eastern Europe to the Vietnam War and Watergate, see Daniel Yergen, Shattered Peace: The Origins of the Cold War and the National Security State (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1977). Characteristically, unlike the much praised Yergen book, another recent work by a highly qualified expert, treating cold war origins in their own historical settings, has passed almost unnoticed: Vojtech Mastny, Russia's Road to the Cold War (NY: Columbia University Press, 1979).
6. Kisinger2">Henry A. Kisinger, "Political Multipolarity: The Changed Nature of Alliances," American Foreign Policy (NY: W. W. Norton, 1969), 73, 76.
7. Official text of a Soviet- French declaration, issued in English by TASS, the Soviet press agency, The New York Times, July 1, 1966.
8. Nikolai Bukharin's phrase, as quoted in Hamilton Fish Armstrong Peace and Counterpeace (NY & London: Harper & Row, 1971), 419.
9. Cf. Edward Crankshaw, The New Cold War: Moscow vs. Peking (Penguin Books, 1963).
10. For an interpretation of the Romanian "break- through" as a move toward "Communist neutralism," see Ghita lonescu The Break- up of the Soviet Empire in Eastern Europe (Penguin Books, 1965), 133 ff.
11. Cf. Constantin C. Guirescu, The Making of the Romanian National Unitary State (Bucharest: Meridiane Publishing, 1975).
12. Awareness abroad of the Hungarians' plight under Romanian rule owes a great deal to the publicity a Communist pro-test has received in the world press; see Károly Király, "An Ethnic- Hungarian Communist in Romania Complains to His Party About Bias," The New York Times, February 1, 1978. Cf. George
Schöpflin, The Hungarians of Romania (London: Minority Right Group Report No. 37, August 1978); "Ethnic Discrimination and Persecution: Hungarian Prisoners of Conscience in Romania," in Romania (NY: Amnesty International USA Publication, 1978), 39-42.
13. Ivan Völgyes, "Limited Liberalization in Hungary" Current History, LXX, 414 (March 1976), 107; Manuel Lucbert, "Hungarys Consumer Economy: A Model of Pragmatic Socialism?" (Translated from Le Monde, December 15, 16, 1978), Manchester Guardian Weekly (December 17, 1978), 10. Favorable prospects of democratization in Hungarywere anticipated by Zbigniew Brzezinski, "Eastern Europe: Tendencies and Prospects," in The People's Democracies after Prague. ed. Jerzy Lukaszewski (Bruges: De Tempel, 1970), 307.
14. Cf. Peter Osnos, "The Polish Road to Communism," Foreign Affairs, LVI, I (October 1977), 209, 216- 20.
15. On whether the Prague Spring should be called a "revolution," see H. Gordon Skilling, Czechoslovakia's Inter-rupted Revolution (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1976), 827- 36. On Dub_ek's role: William Shawcross, Dub_ek (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1970), 100, 143, 165.
16. Robin Alison Remington, ed., Winter in Prague: Documents on Czechoslovak Communism in Crisis (Cambridge, Mass. and London: The MIT Press, 1969), 88- 136.
17. Stephen Borsody, "Imre Nagy and Eurocommunism," in The Hungarian Revolution of 1956 in Retrospect, eds. B. Király and P. Jónás (Boulder, CO.: East European Monographs, 1978) 127- 34.
18. Remington, Winter in Prague, 97.
19. The difference between the Czech and Slovak situations in post- invasion Czechoslovakia was poignantly described by one of the leading Czech reform-Communists, Jiri Hajek: "The Slovaks do not have a national cause to feel that their hopes were frust-rated as the Czechs do." Quoted in Vladimir V. Kusin, From Dub_ek to Charter 77 (NY: St. Martin's Press, 1978), 310. [Peter Chiene] For a Slovak separatist reaction abroad, see J. Mikus, Slovakiaand the Slovaks (Washington: Three Continent Press, 1977), 57- 58.
20. Kálmán Janics, "Czechoslovakia's Magyar Minority," Canadian Review of Studies in Nationalism, 111, 1 (February 1975), 34-44. On the Hungarian minorities in general, Stephen Borsody, "Hungaryat the U.N.: The Red Badge of Courage," The New York Times, March 15, 1977.
21. Jiri Pelikan, Socialist Opposition in Eastern Europe: The Czechoslovak Example (NY: St. Martin's Press, 1976). [Palach, 1975] On the "strategy"
of opposition in Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary see chapters by Jiri Pelikan, "Reforme ou revolution," and by Adam Michnik, "Le nouvel evolutionnisme," in 1956: Varsovie- Budapest. La deuxieme revolution d'Octobre, eds. Pierre Kende and Krzysztof Pomian (Paris: Editions du Seuil, 1978), 201- 229.
22. Frankfurter Rundschau, October 7, 1974, as quoted in German Press Review (Washington, D.C.), October 16, 1974.
23. Official English version of the Helsinki Declaration. The New York Times, July 30, 1975.
24. Unofficial translation of Leonid Brezhnev's speech before the Helsinki conference, July 31, 1975, as reported by Reuters, in The New York Times, August 1, 1975.
25. Speech by Secretary of State Kisinger on August 14, 1975, as released by the State Department, The New York Times, August 15, 1975.
26. Maurice Cranston, "The Meaning of Detente," Survey (London), XXII, 3/4 (1976), 41.
27. Official State Department summary of remarks made in December 1975 by Helmut Sonnenfeldt at a London meeting of American ambassadors in Europe, The New York Times, April 6, 1976.
28. Text of "Charter 77," based on a translation in the New Leader, January 31, 1977.
29. Malcolm W. Brown, "Silent Fall," The New York Times Magazine, October 23, 1977.
30. Hugh Seton- Watson, The "Sick Heart "of Modern Europe: The Problem of the Danubian Lands (Seattle and London: The University of Washington Press, 1975), 74.
31. Czech Communist exiles after Czechoslovakia's Soviet invasion in 1968 testified that the Communist takeover in February 1948 had actually been a Soviet takeover. A special Soviet security group took control of the Czechoslovak Ministry of Interior and within a few months every member of the government and party leadership became dependent on these "advisers. " Eugen Loebel, "The Lessons of 'The Confession," The New York Times, February 20, 1971.
32. Owen Lattimore, "Notes on Mongolia at 50," The New York Times, November 25, 1974.
33. Jean Kanapa, "A 'New Policy' of the French Communists," Foreign Affairs, LV, 2 (October 1976), 292.
34. Richard Lowenthal, "Can Communism Offer an Alternative World Order?," Encounter (April 1977), 25.
35. Oscar\s+Jászi, "Dismembered Hungaryand Peace in Central Europe," Foreign Affairs, 11, 2 (December 1923), 250.
36. Jean- Francois Revel, "The Myths of Eurocommunism," Foreign Affairs, LVI, 2 (January 1978), 305. For a comprehensive discussion of Western European Communist attitudes toward European integration, see Francois Fejt_,
L'héritage de Lénine (Paris: Le Livre de Poche, 1977), Chapter VIII, "L'eurocommunisme: mythe ou réalité?"
37. According to Leonard Schapiro, Western Eurocommunism "can give succor to popular centers of resistance," in Eastern Europe, "but the ability of non- party groups to act upon their feelings is limited." Also, according to Schapiro, a united "Socialist" Europe would be an "overwhelming threat" to the
Soviets; however, a united anti- Soviet Communist- Socialist Europe is a "remote possibility," "highly unlikely." Quoted in Roy Godson and Stephen Haseler, 'Eurocommunism': Implications for East and West (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1978), 103 04, 122- 24. For a less guarded evaluation of Western Eurocommunism's positive impact on Eastern Europe, see Charles Gati, "The 'Europeanization' of Communism?" Foreign Affairs, LV, 3 (April 1977), 544, 547; Edward Crankshaw, "Europe's Reds: Trouble for Moscow," The New York Times Magazine, February 12, 1978. Raymond Aron, too, encouraged positive speculations in this matter; see his Plaidoyer pour L'Europe décadente (Paris: Editions Robert Laffont, 1977), 114.
38. Since the "centralist coup of December 1971," a decentralization and a genuine federalist reorganization to save Yugoslavia was repeatedly urged by Cyril A. Zebot: Letters, The New York Times. September 26, 1972; May 1, 1973; October 14, 1976; June 26, 1977; October 2, 1977; Washington Post, May 30,
1977. Tito's way of vindicating his coup was to argue that "Croat chauvinism," threatened to reopen a fratricidal civil war, leading eventually to the break- up of Yugoslavia. The Croat Communists thus accused rejected Tito's charges. According to democratic Yugoslav political exiles, what the Croats really wanted was "to reconstruct Yugoslavia on a confederative basis believing that only by granting the legitimate national and economic demands not only of the Croats but of the Macedonians, Albanians and other nations of Yugoslavia as well could a firm and lasting voluntary union be established. . . .," Letter by Bogdan Raditsa and Matthew Mestrovic, The New York Times, December 24, 1971.
39. Max Beloff, reviewing my book, "The Triumph of Tyranny," The Listener, (March 10, 1960), 463.
18 EPILOGUE BECOMES PROLOGUE
1. Cf. Winston S. Churchill, The Second World War: Triumph and Tragedy (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1953), 305, 661. [Cassell].
2. Neal Ascherson, The Polish August (Penguin Books, 1981), 179- 80.
3. Ibid., 168.
4. Abraham Brumberg, ed., Poland: Genesis of a Revolution (Vintage Books, 1983), 285- 86. Full text of the Gdansk, Sczezzin agreements.
5. Ascherson, op. cit., 173.
6. Ibid., 266.
19 THE COLLAPSE OF EASTERN EUROPE
1. George F. Kennan at Senate Foreign Relations Committee hearings and on other occasions. See his comprehensive analysis of Gorbachev's impact on Soviet- American relations: "After the Cold War," The New York Times Magazine, February 5, 1989.
2. Leonid Brezhnev's speech in Prague at the Congress of the Czechoslovak Communist Party, May 7, 1 981.
3. An exceptionally prescient book was Zbigniev Brzezinski's The Grand Failure, The Birth and Death of Communism in the Twentieth Century (New York: Scribner, 1989).
4. July Fourth Editorial, The New York Times, July 4, 1986.
5. Robert G. Kaiser, "The U.S.S.R. in Decline," Foreign Affairs (New York: Winter 1988/89), 113.
6. Charles Gáti, The Bloc That Failed: Soviet- East European Relations (Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1990), 200.
7. Karl Kaiser, "Unity, Not Unification for Germany," The New York Times, Op- Ed article, October 6, 1989.
8 Frankfurter Zeitung, March 8, 1989; quoted in English translation in The Week in Germany (New York: German Information Center), March 10, 1989.
9. Henry Kamm in his report from Bratislava, The New York Times, Oct. 25, 1990.
10. News from Helsinki Watch (New York), May, 1990.
11. AP report, The New York Times, Oct. 15, 1991.
12. Paul Lendvai, "Yugoslavia Without Yugoslavs: The roots of the crisis," International Affairs (London), 67:2 (1991), 251- 261. He was among the few Western observers, who traced the roots of the Yugoslav crisis to the founding of the Yugoslav state after World War I.
13.Cf. Note 38, Ch. 17.
20 CENTRAL EUROPE AND THE EUROPEAN UNION
1. After Helsinki, it was quite reasonable to believe in a "formal Western acceptance of the political and territorial status quo in Eastern Europe.," Moreover, no doubt, "the rapid disintegration of the postwar order in Europe took Western leaders by surprise." Cf. Coit D. Blacker, "The Collapse of Soviet Power in Europe," Foreign Affairs: America and the World 1990/91, 88, 93.
2. Peter Calvocoressi, "World Power 1920- 1990," Inter-national Affairs (London), 66/4 (October 1990), 669.
3. Alan Riding, "The Fog That Lingers Over the New Europe," The New York Times, November 22, 1990.
4. Statement issued after the Maastricht conference of the European Community, as quoted by The Week in Germany (New York, German Information Center), December 20, 1991.
5. Hugh Thomas, The Radical Challenge (New York and London: Harper & Row, 1973), 7.
6. Quoted by Stanley B. Winters, a participant in the Masaryk conference, Czechoslovak Newsletter published by the Council of Free Czechoslovakia, Washington, DC. For a critical analysis of Masaryk's and Benes's wartime propaganda, see Francois Fejt_, Requiem pour un empire défunt: Histoire de la
destruction de l'Autriche- Hongrie (Paris: Lieu Commun, 1988), ch. XXXI.
7. Dr. Thomas Garrigue Masaryk, The Making of a State: Memories and Observations, 1916-1918 (New York: Frederick A. Stokes, 1927), 33.
8. Ibid., 32.
9. Cf. Ferdinand Peroutka, "T.G.M., Stastny Statnik," Skutecnost (Paris), 3- 4, 52. Also, Stefan Osusky, "Would Danubian Federalists Unite?" Freedom & Union (Washington, DC), May, 1949.
10. Cf. Edvard\s+Benes, "Czechoslovakia Plans for Peace," Foreign Affairs, 23/1 (October 1944), 35- 36, and "Postwar Czechoslovakia," Foreign Affairs, 24/3 (April 1946), 400- 1, 404.
11. Richard Bernstein, "Prague Reborn: Reclaiming the Broken Heart of Europe," The New York Times, "The Week in Review" section, Dec. 3, 1989.
12. For Jászi's plan for a federal reorganization of Central Europe, see his pamphlet translated form the Hungarian by Stefan V. Hartenstein under the title, Der Zusammenbruch des Dualismus und die Zukunft der Donaustaaten (Vienna, 1918).
13. For Masaryk's "New Europa" plan, see his memoranda in R.W. Seton- Watson, Masaryk in England (Cambridge: University Press, and New York: The Macmillan Company, 1943), also his pamphlet, The New El(rope: The Slav Standpoint (London, 1918), written at the same time as Jászi wrote his, the one quoted above.
14. Oscar\s+Jászi, Revolution and Counter- Revolution in Hungary(London, P.S. King & Son, 1924), 38.
15. Cf. William H. Luers, "Central Europe's Central Need," The New York Times, April 12, 1991. A former U.S. Ambassador to Czechoslovakia urging regionalism "to build a new political and economic organization."
16. Quoted in the Sunday Boston Globe editorial, "Toward a New Europe," February 2, 1992.
17. For a remarkably lucid analysis on the state of European integration, see Flora Lewis, "Europe Stumbles, for Now," The New York Times, September 26, 1992.
|The New Central Europe|