|Hungary - The Unwilling Satellite|
February 15, 1933: Implementation of the Little Entente Accord (concluded in 1921) signed at Geneva: Expresses determination to resist all efforts to destroy existing treaties. No member of the Little Entente will sign a treaty with an outside power before consulting the other two.
June 7, 1933: Four Power Pact initialed by Britain, France, Italy, Germany.
September 2, 1933: The British government agrees to the establishment of a special Austrian force of 8,000 men to meet "grave circumstances." France and Italy have consented before.* September 29, 1933: Little Entente meeting at Sinaia: King * Agreements concerning Austria have been included in this chronology because, since the advent of Hitler to power, the maintenance of Austrian independence became a primary issue for all powers interested in the stability of Europe.
Alexander King Carol Benes, Titulescuand Jeftic They decide to rebuild Danubian countries and base their plan upon "an intimate co- operation of Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Rumania, Hungary, Bulgaria and Austria." February 6, 1934: Hungary recognizes the Soviet government by establishing diplomatic relations with Russia.
March 17, 1934: Three Power Pact: Italy, Austria and Hungary envisage common consultation; an increase of mutual exports by means of bilateral treaties. They set up a permanent commission of three trade experts. Austrian goods shall receive preferential treatment in Italy.
June 15, 1934: After a Mussolini- Hitler meeting, Count Ciano declares: "We have agreed to grant to Austria the means of making her livelihood on the basis of the full recognition of her independence." July 26, 1934: In reaction to Dollfuss assassination: England's Sir John Simon, France's Premier Daumergue and Mussolini declare their respective country's support of Austrian independence.
January 7, 1935: French- Italian Pact: initialed in Rome by Lavaland Mussolini. It fixes the frontiers in North Africa and defines the status of Italians in Tunisia. Furthermore: "The two governments declare that they are in agreement in recommending to those states most interested the conclusion of a pact of noninterference in their respective internal affairs. The above- mentioned agreement should be signed by Italy, Germany, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia and Austria, that is to say by the countries which border on Austria and by Austria herself.
April 14, 1935: Foundation of the Stresa Front: Stresa Conference of Italy, Britain and France reaffirms the consultation pacts concerning threats to Austria's independence. Also reaffirms the Locarno obligations.
May 2, 1935: Franco- Russian mutual assistance pact initialed in Moscow by Laval
May 16, 1935: Soviet- Czecho- Slovak mutual assistance pact signed: Aid is pledged on condition that the victim of aggression is assisted by France.
June 18, 1935: Anglo- German Naval Agreement: conceded to Germany a fleet representing 35% of the British navy in each category regardless of constructions of other powers.
July 26, 1935: Italy proposes to Austria and Hungary, and France proposes to the members of the Little Entente to make a Danubian Pact on the following lines: a) Affirmation of Austria's independence; b) affirmation of mutual noninterference; c) non-aggression agreement; d) consultation in case of violation of a, b, or c.
September 9, 1935: Foreign ministers of Austria and Hungary conclude a Hungarian- Austrian Agreement concerning the proposed Danubian Pact. Hungary opposed to mutual assistance pacts. Both will observe a common attitude toward requesting military equality. (Abrogated by the Paris Peace Treaties.) March 7, 1936: German troops march into Cologne, Coblenz, Frankfort, Mainz, Trier and Saarbruecken.
July 11, 1936: German- Austrian Agreement: "Austria's general policy and its policy toward Germany in particular shall be constantly guided by the principle that Austria recognizes herself as a German state. The Rome Protocol of March 1934, together with its additional clauses of 1936, and the relations of Austria with Italy and Hungary as partners of that protocol are not hereby affected." September 12/14, 1936: A Bratislava meeting of the foreign ministers of the Little Entente resolves that: a) Political treaties with outside countries shall only be concluded with the consent of the other two members of the Little Entente; b) expresses hope that Little Entente relations with Italy and Polandwill improve; c) regrets that Austria violated the military clauses of St. Germain; d) agrees on necessity of opposing Hungary's rearmament; e) regrets German press attacks on Czechoslovakia because of Russian airdromes there, calling them a "pure invention." October 20, 1936: Ita1o- German Agreement: Berlin recognizes annexation of Ethiopia.
November 1, 1936: Mussolini at Milan: "The Italo- German Entente forms a vertical line Berlin- Rome. This line is not a partition but is rather an AXIS around which all European states can collaborate" January 4, 1937: The Mediterranean Agreement, signed by Sir Eric Drummond and Count Ciano: "Anglo- Italian Gentlemen's Agreement," indirect recognition of Mussolini's Impero. Governments recognize that "the freedom of entry into, exit from and transit through the Mediterranean is a vital interest both to the different parts of the British Empire and to Italy and that these interests are in no way inconsistent with each other. . . ." March 26, 1937: Count Ciano and Premier Stoyadinovitch of Yugoslavia sign at Belgrade a political and economic agreement and a non-aggression pact. They undertake to respect their common frontiers on land and on the Adriatic Sea.
December 12, 1937: Italy withdraws from League of Nations.
January 12, 1938: Daranyi Schuschniggand Ciano, representing signatories of the Rome Protocol, hold a conference at Budapest: Austria and Hungary express friendly feelings toward the Axis, their antagonism to communism and sympathy for German, Italian, Japanese Anticomintern Pact. Austria and Italy pronounce themselves in favor of Hungary's military equality.
March 12, 1938: Germany occupies Austria.
March 14, 1938: German government through Goeringand their minister to Prague, assure the Czech government of their determination to respect territorial integrity of Czechoslovakia.
March 25, 1938: Hungarian Foreign Minister de Kanyadeclares that the spirit of the Rome Protocol will survive the end of one of its partners. Hungary will continue her efforts to improve her relations with the Little Entente.
April 16, 1938: Anglo- Italian Agreement: concerning good neighbor relations in East Africa, the evacuation of Spain, and the Naval Treaty of London; signed by Count Ciano and British Ambassador Lord Perth.
July 24, 1938: The British government, with the consent of Prague and Paris, sends Lord Runciman on an unofficial mission to Prague to act as an impartial standing adviser to the Czech government in negotiations with the German minority.
August 23, 1938: The Little Entente recognizes Hungary's right to rearm on the basis of a mutual renunciation of all recourse to force between Hungary and the Little Entente. The agreement, however, will be signed after settlement of minority problems.
September 9, 1938: The Czech government publishes the so- called Fourth Plan for a settlement of the nationality question. Language laws will be modified on the basis of the equality of the German, Russian, Ruthenian, Hungarian and Polish languages with the Czechoslovak language. The principle of national self- government is to be admitted in the form of cantons.
September 21, 1938: The Czechs accept the amputation of German regions from Czechoslovakia.
September 30, 1938: Four Power Agreement of Munich signed. Czech Prime Minister Sirovy accepts Munich agreement.
October 1, 1938: Czechs cede Teschento Poland
October 5, 1938: President Benes of Czechoslovakia resigns, having nominated Frantishek Chvalkovsky foreign minister.
October 9, 1938: The Ruthenians of the Carpatho- Ukraine decide on autonomy within the framework of the Czechoslovak state.
October 21, 1938: Foreign Minister Chvalkovsky tells the Soviet minister in Prague that Czechoslovakia is no longer interested in her mutual assistance pact with Russia.
October 26, 1938: The Czechs accept German- Italian arbitration in their territorial dispute with Hungary.
November 2, 1938: Ribbentrop and Ciano meet in Vienna to give their award: Hungary gets most of her territorial claims satisfied in this first Vienna Award, but not Bratislava and Nitra and not the Carpatho- Ukraine.
November 11, 1938: Hungarian troops enter Kassa, completing occupations following Vienna Award.
January 15, 1939: Count Csaky informs Germany, Italy and Japan that Hungary has decided to accept the invitation to join the Anticomintern Pact.
February 2, 1939: Russia severs diplomatic relations with Hungary because of the latter's joining the Anticomintern Pact, accusing Hungary of having abandoned her political independence.
February 24, l939: Csaky signs a protocol registering Hungary's entry into Anticomintern Pact.
March 14, 1939: Slovakia proclaims her independence.
March 15, 1939: President Hacha summoned to Berlin, places fate of Czech people into the hands of Hitler. German troops enter Prague.
Following Slovak declaration of independence, the Hungarian government presents an ultimatum to the Czech minister in Budapest demanding withdrawal of all Czech troops in the Carpatho- Ukraine within twenty- four hours . . . Ultimatum accepted by Prague. Hungarian troops cross the frontier and reach the Polish border on March 16.
March 16, 1939: Count Teleki announces the return of Carpatho- Ukraine to Hungary and granting of autonomy to her.
Slovakia becomes a German protectorate.
March 22, 1939: Lithuania cedes Memel to Germany after an ultimatum.
April 7, 1939: Italy invades Albania.
April 11, 1939: Hungary withdraws from the League of Nations, but not from the ILO and the Hague Court.
April 13, 1939: Britain and France give Rumania and Greece a pledge of assistance in case they would consider it vital to resist actions threatening their independence.
April 28, 1939: Hitler declares that "the basis for the naval treaty with Great Britain has been removed." July 9, 1939: Bulgarian Premier Kiosse Ivanoff on his way home from Berlin meets Foreign Minister Cincar- Markovic at Bled. They confirm the Yugoslav- Bulgarian Pact of Eternal Friendship, economic collaboration, a policy of independence and neutrality and of friendship with all neighbors.
August 23, 1939: Soviet Russia and Germany conclude a non-aggression pact (containing a secret protocol for the partition of Poland.
September 1, 1939: Germany invades Polandfrom East Prussia and Slovakia.
September 3, 1939: Prime Minister Chamberlain declares that Britain is at war with Germany.
September 4, I939: Hungarian government declares its attitude will not undergo the least change because of the outbreak of war. This is considered a declaration of neutrality.
September 5, 1939: Yugoslavia declares strict neutrality.
September 17, 1939: Soviet troops invade Poland
September 24, 1939: Soviet Russia agrees to resume diplomatic relations with Hungary.
September 28, 1939: Stalinand Ribbentrop fix a "frontier between the interests of their respective states in the territory of the former Polish state." October 16, 1939: Germany declares her military operations in Polandcompleted and annexes western Poland
November l, 1939: Soviet Russia annexes the western Ukraine and, the next day, western White Russia (from Poland.
November 17, 1939: The French government of Daladier recognizes a group of Czechs and Slovaks in London as a Czechoslovak National Committee headed by Benes.
December 20, 1939: The British government recognizes the Czechoslovak National Committee.
January 16, 1940: Hungary and Germany conclude a new trade agreement. Hungary rejects Germany's demand for a more favorable pengo- mark exchange rate, but agrees to reduce official dollar quotation to prewar level.
April 9, 1940: Germany invades Denmark and Norway.
May 10, 1940: Germany invades the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg.
June 10, 1940: Italy declares war on Great Britain and France.
June 20, 1940: France asks for an armistice.
June 24, 1940: Yugoslavia and Russia resume diplomatic relations. (They had been suspended since the Russian revolution of 1917.) June 26, 1940: Soviet Union demands in a twenty- four hour ultimatum that Rumania cede Bessarabiaand Northern Bukovina Rumania says she is willing but asks for negotiations. Moscow rejects plea and demands evacuation within four days. On June 28, Rumania yields.
July 1, 1940: Rumanian Premier Tatarescu renounces formally the Anglo- French guarantee to his country and states that future Rumanian policy will be aligned within the "new orientation in Europe." July 11, 1940: Rumania withdraws from League of Nations.
August 21, 1540: Rumania cedes the Southern Dobrudja to Bulgaria, thus restoring the frontier of 1912.
August 30, 1940: Premiers Teleki of Hungary and Gigurtu of Rumania are called to Vienna to receive second award. Hungary gets northern half of Transylvania.
October 7, 1940: Rumanian legation in Berlin announces that German troops have been sent to Rumania with consent of the latter "to reorganize the Rumanian army with all equipment necessary for modern warfare." November 11, 1940: In a joint declaration the Polish and Czech governments in exile affirm their intention to collaborate closely after the war, forming a confederation.
November 23, 1940: General Antonescu, Rumanian premier, signs his country's adherence to the Anticomintern Pact in Berlin. Tuka, premier of Slovakia, signs too.
December 12, 1940: Count Csaky and Yugoslav Foreign Minister Cincar- Markovic sign, at Belgrade, a pact of lasting peace and eternal friendship. The pact provides for consultation on all questions of mutual interest.
February 10, 1941: Great Britain severs diplomatic relations with Rumania, stating that the latter has become a military base of Germany without protest.
March 1, 1941: Professor Filoffsigns Bulgaria's adherence to the Axis Pact in Vienna. German troops occupy Bulgaria.
March 2, 1941: Filoffdeclares that presence of German troops in Bulgaria does not change her policy of peace. Britain severs diplomatic relations, pointing to the German menace against Greece.
March 25, 1941: Yugoslav Premier Tsvetkovitch and Cincar- Markovic sign adherence to the Tripartite Pact. Ribbentrop promises that Germany will respect at all times the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Yugoslavia, and that Yugoslavia will not be asked to permit the passage of German troops.
March 27, 1941: General Simovitchstages a coup d'etat. King PeterII takes over in Yugoslavia.
April 6, 1941: Russia announces conclusion of Yugoslav- Soviet Friendship Pact: "Should one of the contracting parties be subjected to aggression by a third state, the other party will preserve its policy of friendship." Germany invades Yugoslavia and Greece.
April 8, 1941: The British government informs the Hungarian minister in London that the British legation in Budapest is being withdrawn because Hungary has become a base for military operations against the Allies
April 10, 1941: Croatiaproclaims her independence.
April 11, 1941: Hungary occupies Yugoslav territory.
April 15,, 1941: Bulgaria breaks off her relations with Yugoslavia.
April 23, 1941: Greece severs diplomatic relations with Bulgaria.
May 14, 1941: Croatiais constituted as a totalitarian state with Ante Pavelitch as leader.
June 14, 1941: Croatiaenters the Axis Pact.
June 21, 1941: Hitler's armies attack Russia.
June 24, 1941: Hungary severs diplomatic relations with Russia.
June 27, 1941: Hungary declares war on Russia.
July 18, 1941: Great Britain recognizes Benes' provisional government in London.
July 31, 1941: The United States does the same.
August 17, 1941: The Soviet government accepts Zdenko Fierlinger as minister of the Benes government.
November 10, 1941: The Czecho- Slovak- Polish Co- ordination Committee meets in London and agrees that the Polish Czech Federation will be the nucleus of political and economic organization in that part of Europe and will constitute an indispensable element in the new European democratic order. Benes, speaking at Aberdeen, says that Austria and Hungary and perhaps Rumania will be invited to join, but that Hungary will have to give Up her territorial gains.
December 6, 1941: British government declares that from December 7 Britain will be at war with Finland, Rumania, and Hungary owing to their refusal to cease hostilities against Russia.
December 7, 1941: Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
December l2, 1941: The Slovak government declares war on Britain and the United States. Hungary severs her diplomatic relations with the United States.
December 13, 1941: Croatiaand Bulgaria declare war on Britain and the United States.
December 28, 1941: Britain announces that she is at war with Bulgaria.
March 9, 1942: Premier Bardossyof Hungary resigns. New premier is Nicholas de Kallay.
August 8, 1942: Benes broadcasts that Russia has recognized Czechoslovakia's pre- Munich frontiers.
July 25, 1943: Mr. Ghyczy becomes foreign minister of Hungary.
December 12, 1943: Russo- Czech "alliance" is signed during Benes' visit to Moscow.
March 18/19, 1944: German troops occupy Hungary.
March 24, 1944: Former Premier Kallay calls the new Sztojay government illegal. He and Horthy are retained.
May 21, 1944: The Bulgarian cabinet Bojiloff resigns twenty- four hours after receiving Russian note warning Bulgaria of consequences of her assistance to Germany.
May 29, 1944: Bulgarian Regent Filoffreturns from Berchtesgaden with an ultimatum demanding more co- operation and a friendly government.
June 1, 1944: Ivan Bogrianoff, a pro- German, forms a new Bulgarian cabinet.
July 8, 1944: Yugoslav cabinet Subasitch nominated.
August 5, 1944: Hungary rejects Germany's demand to break with Turkey.
August 25, 1944: Moscow states: "The USSR has no desire to acquire any part of the Rumanian territory, to modify the social order in Rumania or to limit in any fashion the independence of Rumania." August 26, 1944: Radio Sofia announces Bulgaria's withdrawal from the war.
September 3, 1944: The Soviet Tass agency alleges that Bulgaria's neutrality is used to cover the exodus of German troops, Russia concentrates troops along the Danube on Rumanian soil.
September 5, 1944: The new Bulgarian premier Muravieffstates that his government is resolved to restore freedom and democracy; announces a rigorous policy of neutrality involving disarmament of Germans irrespective of Berlin's attitude. . . .
The same evening, Russia declares war on Bulgaria.
September 6, 1944: Bulgaria asks Russia for an armistice.
September 8, 1944: Russia invades Bulgaria.
September 9, l944: Colonel Kimon Georghieff forms a new government in Bulgaria, composed of members of the Fatherland Front which includes the Zveno Group, the communists and left wing agrarians and socialists.
September 10, 1944: Russia announces that hostilities in Bulgaria have ceased.
September 13, 1944: The Bulgarian government sends an armistice delegation to Marshal Tolbukhin.
Moscow announces an armistice with Rumania.
October 16, 1944: A national socialist coup follows Horthy's plea for an armistice. Major Szalasi heads the new Hungarian "government." Horthy is seized by the Gestapo and taken to Berlin.
October 28, 1944: Bulgaria signs an armistice in Moscow.
November 11, 1944: Hungarian General Staff Chief Voeroesescapes to Russian lines, orders army to join Russians and declares that the Horthy regime is the legal one.
December 24, 1944: Russia announces that a Hungarian National Assembly has been set up in Debrecen. General Voeroesappears as defense minister, Colonel General Miklos as premier.
January 21, 1945: Hungarian Premier Miklos signs an armistice with Russia, United States, and Great Britain.
January 31, 1945: The Czechoslovak government in London recognizes the Lublin Committee as the provisional government of Poland
February 1, 1945: The Polish government in London severs its relations with the Benes government and states that it has long recognized that the Czechoslovak government is not independent. . . .
February 12, 1945: The siege of Budapest is ended and Russian forces occupy Budapest, accompanied by Máthiás Rákossi, who returns from twenty-five years, service in the Soviet to become the dictator of Hungary.
|Hungary - The Unwilling Satellite|