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Notes - Chapter 5

1. Hans Hartl, Das Schicksal des Deutschtums in Rumänien, (Würzburg: 1958), p. 36. For more detail on the education of the Transylvanian Saxons see Otto Folberth, "Das Schulwesen der Siebenbürger Sachsen. Rückblick auf eine abendländische Kulturleistung", in Südostdeutsche Vierteljahresblätter, 9/1960, pp. 194-202; Friedrich Teutsch, Die Siebenbürgisch-sächsischen Schulordnungen, vols. 2, Berlin: 1888-1892.


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2. For more detail on this, see Ernst Wagner, Historisch-statistisches Ortsnamenbuch für Siebenbürgen. Studia Transy1vanica, (Cologne-Vienna: 1976), pp. 84-88; see further T. Gilberg, Modernization in Rumania since World War II, (New York: 1975), p. 210. In the so-called Obere Vorstadt of Brasov (Bolgárszeg/Scheii Brasovului) there was a Romanian Orthodox school in the 15th century.

3. Elemér Jancsó, Az erdélyi magyarsag életsorsa nevelésügyének tükrében 1914-1934 [The Fate of the Hungarians in Transylvania as Reflected by their Educational Situation 1914-1943], (Cluj: 1935).

4. István Dolmányos, "Kritik der Lex Apponyi" (Die Schulgesetze vom Jahre 1907), in Die nationale Frage in der Österreichisch-Ungarischen Monarchie 1900-1918, (Budapest: 1966), pp. 233-304.

5. Among others T. Gilberg, Modernization in Rumania, p. 209; F. Ronneberger, "Sozialstruktur," in K.D. Grothusen ed., Rumänien. Südosteuropa Handbuch, vol. II, (Göttingen: 1977), p. 414.

6. Monitorul Oficial, [Official Gazette], Part I, no. 161, July 26, 1924.

7. Monitorul Oficial, Part I, no. 283, December 22, 1925.

8. Decrees 100,088 and 100,090/1923, issued by C. Angelescu, Minister of Education in the Liberal government.

9. Decree No 771/1924, and paragraph 40 of Law No. 159. Ten Transylvanian counties, about a half of them with a majority of Hungarian inhabitants, belonged to the so-called "cultural zone": Bihor/Bihar, Salaj/Szilágy, Satu Mare/Szatmár, Maramures/Máramaros, Turda/Torda Aranyos, Hunedoara/Hunyad, Odorhei/Udvarhely, Ciuc/Csík, Trei Scaune/Háromszék, and Mures/Maros-Torda.

10. Lajos Nagy, A kisebbségek alkotmányjogi helyzete Nagyromäniában [The Constitutional Position of the Minorities in Greater Romania], (Kolozsvár: 1944), p. 123.

11. For more detail, see: Endre Barabás, A romániai magyar nyelvü oktatás elsö tíz éve [The First Ten Years of Hungarian-language Education in Romania], (Lugos: 1929); see also: István Sulyok and László Fritz eds. Erdélyi Magyar Évkönyv 1918-1929, vol. I, (Cluj: 1930), pp. 73-84.

12. Monitorul Oficial, March 8, 1925. The term "baccalaureate" refers to the final examinations at the end of secondary education of the gymnasium (grammar school) type. Passing this examination was a precondition for university entrance.

13. For more detail, G.A. Dima, Scoala secundara in lumina bacalaureatului [Secondary Education in the Light of the Baccalaureate], (Bucharest: 1928); see also Theodor Grentrup, Das Deutschtum an der mittleren Donau in Rumänien und Jugoslawien, (Münster: 1930), p. 204 et seq.

14. Nation und Staat, (Vienna), March 1935, p. 404.


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15. Alfred Bohmann, Menschen und Grenzen. Bevölkerung und Nationalitäten in Südosteuropa. Rumänien, pp. 101-218 (Cologne: 1969), p. 120.

16. La Transylvanie demande a être écoutée. Aide-Mémoire presenté à la Conférence de la Paix par le Comité Hongrois de Transylvanie, (Paris: 1946), p. 11.; see also Information sur la situation de la minorité hongroise en Roumanie, (Geneva: 1934), p. 11.

17. E. Ammende, Die Nationalitäten in den Staaten Europas, 1931, p. 386, et seq.

18. Monitorul Oficial no. 101, May 4, 1938; Ibid., Part II, no. 178, August 4, 1938, and Part III.

19. Gesetz No. 977 "über die Einrichtung des deutschen Schulwesens in Rumänien" [The Law Relating to the Institution of German Education in Romania], November 8, 1941, Monitorul Oficial no. 266, November 8, 1941, p. 7,000 et seq.

20. Endre Barabás, "A magyar iskolaügy helyzete Romániában 1918- 1941" [The State of Hungarian Education in Romania, 1918-1941], Kisebbségi Körlevél [Minority Circular], no. 5, 1943, p. 273.

21. Sächsisch-schwäbische Chronik, eds., E. Eisenburger and M. Kroner, (Bucharest; 1976), p. 169.

22. Ibid.

23. Franz H. Riedl, Das Südostdeutschtum in den Jahren 1918-1945 (Munich: 1962), p. 52; see also E. Wagner, Historisch-statistisches Ortsnamenbuch, op. cit., p. 91, Table 19.

24. For more detail see Trond Gilberg, "Ethnic Minorities in Romania Under Socialism," East European Quarterly, vol. VII, no. 4, January 1974, p. 439.

25. For more detail, Dokumentation der Vertreibung der Deutschen aus Ost-Mitteleuropa, vol. III: Das Schicksal der Deutschen in Rumänien, edited by the Bundesministerium für Vertriebene, Flüchtlinge und Kriegsgeschädigte, (Berlin: 1957), p. 92 E. et seq.

26. Ibid.

27. Wilhelm Reiter, "Die nationalitätenpolitik der Rumänischen Volksrepublik im Spiegel ihrer Statistik," Osteuropa, vol. 11, 1961, no. 3, p. 194.

28. Monitorul Oficial, Part I, no. 177, August 3, 1948, p. 6,322 et seq.

29. Decree No. 176/1948, relating to the nationalization of the school-properties, and Decree No. 175/1948, relating to the nationalization of the schools, in Monitorul Oficial, August 3, 1948, Part I, no. 177, p. 6,322 et seq.

30. On the "Daco-Roman continuity-theory" see the explanation in Chapter IV, note 99.

31. Istoria Romaniei. Manual unic pentru scolile generale [The History of Romania. Uniform Textbook for the General Schools], (Bucharest: 1949); see also the textbook by Dumitru Almas and Eleonora Fotescu, Geschichte des Vaterlandes (Bucharest, 1977); Walter König, "Die gegenwärtigen Schulverhältnisse der Deutschen in Rumänien," in Korrespondenzblatt des Arbeitskreises für siebenbürgische Landeskunde, III, vol. 7, nos. 3-4, pp. 122-123, Cologne-Vienna, 1977.


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32. Decree-Law No. 159, July 21, 1948, concerning the Foreign Schools in the Romanian People's Republic, in Monitorul Oficial, Part I, no. 167, July 22, 1948.

33. For more detail see: Stephen Fischer-Galati, ed., Romania, (New York: 1956), p. 162.

34. Alfred Bohmann, op. cit., p. 200.

35. Sándor Kelemen, Az erdélyi helyzet [The Transylvanian Situation], (Budapest: 1946), p. 27.

36. Ibid.

37. Report prepared on the instructions of the Executive Committee of Bolyai University in Cluj, December 1954 and March 1955. (Manuscript).

38. The first pioneer units were established at the end of April 1949 on the basis of the resolution of the Romanian Workers, Party at its plenary session on December 22-24, 1948. Scinteia [The Spark], the central organ of the RCP, (Bucharest), May 4, 1949.

39. Robert Schultz, Deutsche in Rumänien. Das Nationalitätenproblem in der Rumänischen Volksrepublik, (Leipzig-Jena: 1955), pp. 85, 88. Quoted from Dokumentation, p. 104 E.

40. Resolution No. 1003 of the Council of Ministers on July 26, 1957. See also Constantin Sporea, "Probleme des Hochschulwesens in Rumänien", special number of Wissenschaftlicher Dienst Südosteuropa, (Munich), vol. 8, 1959, no. 3, p.7.

41. Resolution of the Council of Ministers, No. 3,886 of November 17, 1953, in Colectia de legi si decrete [Collection of Laws and Decrees], (Bucharest).

42. Hans Bergel, Die Sachsen in Siebenbürgen nach dreissig Jahren Kommunismus [The Transylvanian Saxons after Thirty Years of Communism], (Innsbruck: 1976), p. 12.

43. For more detail, see Randolf L. Braham, Education in the Rumanian People's Republic, U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare. DE-14,087. Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office, 1963, p. 75.

44. For a detailed discussion, see Hans Bergel, "Die Entwicklung der Siebenbürger Sachsen seit 1945 als Problem der Volksgruppen in Donauraum", in Der Donauraum (Vienna: 1976), pp. 151-160.

45. The history of the present-day Babes-Bolyai University began in the 16th century, with the foundation of a Hungarian Jesuit Academy in Kolozsvár (Cluj) by the Transylvanian Prince Stephen Báthori (1581). This institution became a university with Ferenc József University in 1872; in 1919, this university was expropriated by the Romanian state and renamed Ferdinand I University. Between 1940 and 1958, it was again a Hungarian university. See among others Stefan Pascu, A Kolozsvári "Babes-Bolyai" Egyetem, [The University "Babes-Bolyai" of Kolozsvár], (Kolozsvár/Cluj: 1972).


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46. A. Bohmann, op. cit., p. 180.

47. Mihail Roller, The History of the Romanian People's Republic. Textbook for the secondary classes, (Bucharest: 1952).

48. I took this information from T. Gilberg, Modernization in Rumania since World War II, op. cit., p. 227, Table 8 and 10.

49. Legea nr. 11/1968 privind invatamintul in Republica Socialista Romania [Law No. 11/1968 relating to education in the Romanian Socialist Republic], in Buletinul Oficial, Part I, no. 62, May 13, 1968.

50. Decretul nr. 278 din 11 mai 1973 privind stabilirea normelor unitare de structura pentru institutiile de invatamint [Decree No. 278 of May 11, 1973, relating to the regularization of structural norms for educational institutions], in Buletinul Oficial, no. 67, May 13, 1973, p. 818.

51. Resolution on the Development and Completion of Education in the Romanian Socialist Republic, Buletinul Oficial, Part I, no. 100, July 9, 1973.

52. Scinteia, October 14, 1978. For more detail, see D. Ghermani, "Das neue rumänische Schulgesetz," in Wissenschaftlicher Dienst Südosteuropa, (Munich) November 1978, vol. 27, no. 11, pp. 274-279.

53. Ibid., p. 277.

54. Decree No. 80/1972, Buletinul Oficial, no. 28, March 8, 1972.

55. D. Ghermani, "Das rumänische Schul-und Hochschulwesen," in Wissenschaftlicher Dienst Südosteuropa, 1975, no. 10, p. 206.

56. Law No. 2/1966 "Concerning the establishment, organization, and function of technical lycées."

57. Anuarul Statistic al Republicii Socialiste Romania 1979, pp. 547-548.

58. For more details, see Chapter VII.

59. Decree No. 301/1971, Buletinul Oficial [Official Bulletin], no. 108, September 21, 1971.

60. For more details, see Chapter VII.

61. Decree No. 371/1969.

62. These statements were made at the session of Council of Working People of Hungarian Nationality by István Péterfi, in his presidential address. See Elöre [Forward -- Hungarian -- language journal published in Bucharest], March 14, 1971.

63. Decretul nr. 278 din 11 mai 1973 [Decree No. 278 of May 11, 1973], in Buletinul Oficial, no. 67, May 13, 1973, p. 818.

64. Decree No. 278/1973, Article 3, Paragraphs 2 and 3.

65. A. Bohmann. op. cit., p. 202.

66. Nicolae Ceausescu, Romania on the Way to the Construction of the Multilateral Developed Socialist Society, (Bucharest: 1976), vol. III, p. 700.

67. János Demeter, in Korunk ]Our Age], 1970/11, p. 1627.

68. Ibid.

69. Tanügyi Újság [Education Journal], (Bucharest), no. 31, 1971; A Hét [The Week], (Bucharest), no. 37, 1971.

70. Traian Pop in Tanügyi Újság, no. 38, 1972.

71. Elöre [Forward], no. 7,588. 1972.


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72. It should be noted that after 1945 the historical names of the majority of the national-minority lycées were abolished and were replaced by numbers or Romanian names.

73. Decree No. 371/1969.

74. Eduard Eisenburger, Wegzeichen der Heimat, (Cluj: 1974), p. 163. See also the information issued by the Ministry of Education in March 1977.

75. Walter König, Die gegenwärtigen Schulverhältnisse der Deutschen in Rumänien, (Köln-Wien: 1977), pp. 124-125.

76. Sächsisch-schwäbische Chronik, E. Eisenburger and M. Kroner, (Bucharest: 1976), p. 194; see also data issued by the Romanian Ministry of Education, volumes 1947-1946.

77. W. König, Die gegenwärtigen Schulverhältnisse, op. cit. pp. 124-125.

78. From data issued by the Ministry of Education.

79. From data issued by the Ministry of Education: Árpád Debreczi, Elöre, March 31, 1972.

80. Europa Ethnica, vol. 32, 2/1975, p. 106.

81. W. König, op. cit., p. 90.

82. Monica Barcan and Adalbert Millitz, Die deutsche Nationalität in Rumänien, (Bucharest: 1977), p. 85.

83. W. König, op. cit., p. 103.

84. The 1977 Census, Scinteia, June 14, 1977.

85. I took this information from Mihnea Berindei, "Les minorités nationales en Roumanie" (II), in L'Alternative, (Paris), May-August 1980, p. 41.

86. Ibid.

87. Wissenschaftlicher Dienst Südosteuropa, no. 10, 1975, pp. 207-208; see also Anuarul Statistic al Republicii Socialiste Romania 1979. [Statistical Yearbook of the RSR 1979], p. 557 et seq.

88. Decree No. 207/1977 of the State Council "Concerning the organization and function of the lycées", in Buletinul Oficial, no. 67, July 12, 1977, and Decree No. 208/1977 "Concerning the organization and function of the vocational schools."

89. From the speech of N. Ceausescu at the March 12, 1971 session of the Council of Working People of Hungarian Nationality in Elöre [Forward], Bucharest, March 14, 1971.

90. János Demeter in A Hét [The Week], no. 28, 1971.

91. The Hungarian Nationality in Romania, Institute of Political Science and the Study of Nationality Questions, Bucharest, 1976, p. 17.

92. Quoted from a Memorandum of Lajos Takács, former Rector of the Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj. (Manuscript).

93. W. König, Die gegenwärtigen Schulverhältnisse, p. 111.

94. György Kovács writes about the difficulties of organization and the resistance of the Church in his report, Az igazság útján [Along the Path of Truth], (Bucharest: 1949).


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95. György Béke, Magunk keresése [Quest of Ourselves], (Bucharest: 1972), p. 28.

96. Law No. 6, March 14, 1969 in Buletinul Oficial, Part l, no. 33, March 15, 1969.

97. Istoria Romaniei. Manual pentru clasa a XII-a, partea a II-a. [The History of Romania. Textbook for the XIIth Class, Part. II], ed. Florea Dragne, (Bucharest: 1968); see also W. König, op. cit. pp. 122-123.

98. Gotthold Rhode, "Deutsche Einheit und rumänischer Nationalstaat" [German Unity and the Romanian National State], in Südosteuropa Mitteilungen, Munich, 1975, no. 2, p. 48.

99. Data published by the Ministry of Education, March 1977.

100. George Lázár, "Jelentés Erdélyböl" [Report from Transylvania], in Irodalmi Újság [Hungarian Literary Gazette -- a Hungarian-language monthly], (Paris), March-April issue, 1977.

101. Ibid.

102. Judetele Romaniei Socialiste [The Counties of Socialist Romania], (Bucharest: 1969), p. 368.

103. Decree No. 278 of May 11, 1973, in Buletinul Oficial, Part I, no. 67, May 13, 1973, p. 818.

104. Paragraph a in Section II of Decree No. 278 of May 11, 1973.

105. "Az oktatás fejlesztéséröl es tökéletesítéséröl" [On the Development and Improvement of Education], in Elöre [Forward], (Bucharest), June 21, 1973.

106. From the text of a speech given at the joint session of the Council of Working People of Hungarian and German Nationality published in Neuer Weg [New Path], (Bucharest), April 7, 1974, pp. 1 and 3.


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