by the U.S. in 1945
Interest in Hungary
(Diplomatic Papers, the Conferences
in Malta and Yalta, 1945. PreConference Documents, Negotiations
and Recommendations, Principal Hungarian Problems, pp.243, 246.)
THE LONGRANGE INTEREST OF
THE UNITED STATES IN HUNGARY CENTERS ON OUR DESIRE TO SEE ESTABLISHED
PEACEFUL AND STABLE RELATIONSHIPS AMONG EUROPEAN NATIONS. THE
UNITED STATES HAS AN INTEREST IN THE ACHIEVEMENT OF SOLUTIONS
HUNGARY'S BOUNDARY DISPUTES AND
ITS POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC PROBLEMS WHICH WILL PROMOTE ORDERLY
PROGRESS AND PEACE WITH NEIGHBORING STATES.
WE BELIEVE THIS NTEREST WOULD
BE SERVED BY A TERRITORIAL SETTLEMENT WHICH WOULD TRANSFER TO
HUNGARY SOME OF THE PREDOMINANTLY HUNGARIANPOPULATED DISTRICTS
IN SOUTHERN SLOVAKIA ALSO.
IT WOULD BE DESIRABLE TO SECURE
THE AGREEMENT OF THE BRITISH AND SOVIET GOVERNMENTS ON THE::
DESIRABILITY OF FINDING A SOLUTION
OF THE HUNGARIANRUMANIAN FRONTIER DISPUTE WHICH WILL GIVE
SOME SATISFACTION TO HUNGARY'S LEGITIMATE CLAIMS AND PROMOTE PEACEFUL
RELATIONS BETWEEN THE TWO STATES.
WHY ARE THE SAME LEGITIMATE
CLAIMS NOT ACKNOWLEDGED TODAY?
"Right of Intervention"
In a book, published in 1971 by
the Academy of the Socialist Republic of Rumania, entitled "Unification
of the Rumanian National State", and widely distributed by
the Rumanian Embassy within the United States, the distinguished
authors have this to say concerning the Peace Treaty (page 314):
"The Trianon Treaty includes
some clauses which affected to some extent the independence and
sovereignty of the Rumanian state; the Rumanian delegation at
the Peace Conference accepted these clauses under pressure from
the representatives of the Great Powers. Such was the clause providing
for the protection of the national minorities from the outside..."
"The protests of the Rumanian
delegation against these clauses... were ignored by the Great
Powers. Article 47 was included in the Treaty, stipulating that
Rumania pledges itself to Hungary to include in a Treaty concluded
with the Chief Allied and Associated Powers such provisions
as these Powers may consider necessary to protect in Rumania the
interest of citizens who differ from the majority of the population
in respect of race, language of religion..."
"Undoubtedly, by such provisions
the Big Powers reserved their right to interfere in Rumania's
internal affairs" the authors conclude on page 314.
Though the rest of this widely
distributed English language publication of the Rumanian government
is nothing more than blatant falsification of history, the above
statements clearly prove that the Great Powers responsible for
the Peace Treaties did not trust the fate of the minorities completely
to the discretion of the Rumanians but reserved the right to intervene
if the need should occur, by any means that seems necessary for
the protection of the more than four million ethnic minorities
incorporated into the Rumanian state.
Since the Rumanians themselves
admit that this "Right of Intervention" exists, there
is no reason why it shouldn't be implemented in order to save
those millions of men, women and children who are exposed today
to the ruthless persecution of a sadistic government which openly
advocated that it will not tolerate ethnic groups within its borders.
The Idea of
on the Rise
During the last century, devastating
wars and ultranationalistic upheavals left the ethnic minorities
of the Carpathian Basin to the mercy of increasingly intolerant
majorities, especially in Transylvania. As oppression became more
and more unbearable, writers, poets, philosophers and some moderate
statesmen began to voice the need for a workable solution, which
could restore peace, order and stability in this otherwise immensely
rich land we know as Transylvania. The geographical, ethnographical
and culturepolitical similarities between Switzerland and
Transylvania have been pointed out again and again by members
of all three nationality groups inhabiting the land. It seemed
logical that in order to secure a peaceful and profitable coexistence
between the Rumanians (approx. 4.8 million), the Hungarians (approx.
3 million) and the Germans (approx. 200,000) the Swiss pattern
should be duplicated with certain modifications suitable to the
specifically Transylvanian situations.
History proved that under the
protecting urnbrella of the St. Stephen's Crown and its Constitution,
which recongized no difference between nationalities, Transylvania
was able to prosper for centuries and become the standardbearer
of Western Christian Culture as the Easternmost frontier
of Central Europe. Until outside forces began to exercise their
political influences by turning one coexisting nationality against
the other in order to create disturbances and thus weaken the
resistance of the Hungarian Kingdom, which kept the balance of
Europe for centuries by defending the fortress of the Carpathian
Basin, the very gate to the rest of Europe.
This gate was broken down and
the natural fortress of the Carpathians invaded from the East
three times during the course of history. First by the Tartars
of Batu Khan, one of the generals of Ghengis Khan, in 1242. In
spite of the enormous destruction caused by this invasion, the
country recuperated in a relatively short period of time. The
second invasion came during the 15th century, enabling the Ottoman
(Turkish) Empire to rule over the central portion of the Carpathian
Basin for 150 years, but still without the ability to completely
destroy it. However, it weakened the resistance of the population
to the point where it became easy for the Habsburg Empire to draw
the entire territory of the Hungarian Kingdom into its own sphere
of influence, abolishing the constitution and expanding its absolute
rule over the people.
This curtailment of all the religious,
political and administrative rights to which the inhabitants of
the Carpathian Basin were accustomed, caused several revolts and
revolutionary wars during the 18th and 19th centuries, in which
Hungarians, Croatians, Slovaks, Serbians and even some Rumanians
fought side by side against the Habsburg armies. However, the
well known Habsburg slogan "Divide and Conquer" was
put into practice and succeeded in turning some of the coexisting
nationalities, especially the Rumanians, against the Hungarian
population, thus securing Habsburg victory over the insurgents.
This is that tragic point in history
where the Rumanians of Transylvania, who entered the land as refugees
and migrant workers during the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries,
became alienated from the native Hungarian population of the hostcountry.
From here on, the coexistence turned into intrigue and hostility.
It was Governor Louis Kossuth,
leader of the Liberty War of 184849 who first declared the
necessity of a "Federation of Nationalities" under the
umbrella of the newly declared Hungarian Republic. The Liberty
War of the young Republic against the Habsburg Empire was practically
won, when answering the call of the 16 year old Emperor Franz
Joseph, the Czar of Russia sent an army of 100,000 against the
freedom fighters, and within a few months the war was over. The
Rumanians of Transylvania, at the instigation of Habsburg agents,
turned on defenseless Hungarian towns and villages, massacring
thousands of people with unprecedented cruelty. These terrible
deeds drove the ultimate wedge between the Hungarians and the
Rumanians of Transylvania. It also changed the balance of the
population. Until 1949 the native Hungarians constituted the majority
nation in Transylvania. But due to the massacres as well as the
executions, arrests and deportations perpetrated by the Imperial
Army, which forced thousands of Hungarian patriots to flee their
native land, the Rumanian population gained a slight numerical
After the Kingdom of Rumania was
established at the end of the 19th century just beyond the mountains,
uniting the two Vlach principalities of Vlachia and Moldova. the
international intrigue to "unite" Transylvania with
this new country became an obsession with those underground powers
who were seeking the opportunity to dismantle the AustroHungarian
Monarchy and break down for the third time in history the fortress
guarding Central Europe: the unified Carpathian Basin. This goal
was accomplished through World War I, and the socalled "Peace
Treaties" that followed. The fortress was blown into pieces
Those few who foresaw the danger
of Russiandirected Communist expansion swallowing up Central
Europe, began to examine the possibilities of rebuilding the unity
of the Carpathian Basin in some acceptable way. They soon realized,
that the only workable solution would be the old Kossuthidea,
namely a federation of all the coexisting nationalities as independent
administrative units with equal rights and equal obligations,
However, the ideological confusion and the network of international
intrigues, which prevailed in the preWorld War II decades,
made it impossible to even discuss the possibilities of such Federation.
Therefore the tragic end was inevitable. Midst the raging emotions
of national hatred, the giant steam roller of the Red Army crushed
and pulverized the Carpathian Basin, creating a bloodshed that
devoured more lives than the Tartars of Ghenghis Khan and the
armies of the Sultan together.
It took forty years, and the maturing
of an entirely new generation which had never witnessed the "old
days" and was not influenced by anything but the sole instinct
of survival, to resurrect at least in thought, the idea of some
sort of federation as the solution for an acceptable coexistence
and a brighter future. They are the representatives of a new
generation of Hungarians, Croatians, Slovaks and even Rumanians,
who are beginning to exchange some thoughts about the possibilities
of such a move. But only very carefully, on a very low key, not
to challenge the powers in charge, which keep their rules entrenched
on the supposition that in one country only one nationality has
the right to exist, and every other "foreign element"
has to be annihilated in order to secure their power and the intangibility
of the national borders.
While today Rumania is holding
the most extreme position in the concept of total annihilation
all nonRumanianspeaking elements in this multinational
country, Hungary stands at the opposite end of the scale by accepting
all nationalities as equal, endowed with the same rights. This
ancient virtue of tolerance, which made the Hungarian Kingdom
for centuries the refuge of all those persecuted, seems to be
showing through even from under the heavy coat of the Moscowred.
While this surge toward a permanent
solution for a lasting and peaceful coexistence can be noticed
only submerged in the underground of the countries concerned,
out here in the Free World we encounter more and more open discussion
and serious articles dealing with the subject of a Carpathian,
Danubian or Central European Federation. It is only a question
of time when reason and common sense will replace the self destructive
emotions still raging today and will begin to open the doors to
a better future for all concerned.
The Road to
Peace and Justice
in the Carpathian
The Trans ylvanian Quarterly
BLUEPRINT FOR JUSTiCE,
PEACE AND PROSPERITY IN THE CARPA THIAN BASIN
During the last few months
several articles appeared in America as well as Europe and Australia
dealing with the nationality problems of EastCentral Europe,
known as the Carpathian Basin. Most of these articles seem to
be trying to find a viable solution for the future of this troubled
part of our world, based on justice, wisdom and economical feasibility.
The last of these articles. representing the viewpoint of the
Transylvanian World Federation and written by the president of
the U.S. Branches of this organization, sums up the principles
upon which a successful unity ofall the nationalities inhabiting
the Carpathian Basin may be built
In the July 29, 1984 issue of
the Catholic Hungarian Sunday we were privileged to read a very
significant article entitled "God Save You My Hungarian Friend"
written by a gentleman who signed his name as Count Alexander
Urechia. Though we have never heard of a Count Urechia before,
the excellence of the thoughts expressed in the article places
the writer next to the late Professor Dr. Jonel P. Margineanu,
the staunchest supporter ever of the idea of peace with justice
in the Carpathian Basin.
Count Urechia suggests in his
article the establishment of a Carpathian Federation which would
guarantee equal rights and equal representation to all the nationalities
inhabiting the country, similar to Switzerland.
The idea is not new. It was brought
up first by Louis Kossuth, leader of the Hungarian Liberty War
of 1848 and President of the first Hungarian Republic, whose heroic
struggle for freedom was brutally squashed by the joint imperial
armies of the Austrian Emperor and the Czar of Russia. The idea
surfaced several times between the two World Wars, and again after
the tragic end of World War II, promoted by members of the Hungarian
Exile. However, every effort so far in this direction was met
by the Rumanians as well as the Czechs, with firm refusal. The
political and the cultural leaders of these two nations insist
that the "nationality problems" of the Carpathian basin
be solved by the forced assimilation of all nonCzech and
nonRumanian native ethnic minorities and through the complete
annihilation of their cultural heritage, no matter how many human
lives must be sacrificed to turn by force, multinational
countries into singlenation states.
Besides members of the Hungarian
exile, several Austrian, German, Slovakian and Croatian scholars
were examining in the recent years the needs and the feasibility
of some sort of union or federation between the coexisting nationalities
of the Carpathian Basin and the Danube Valley.
This trend of thinking is due
to the obvious fact that with the shrinking of our globe we are
headed toward larger economical and political unity for the sake
of peace and higher living standards. It is also obvious that
besides our inherited human weaknesses there is nothing to prevent
well meaning, sober and justice loving peoples living in the same
land no matter how many different languages they speak
from finding ways of establishing a common framework which
includes everybody without injuring anyone.
Especially, since the Carpathian
Basin as such, used to be for almost ten centuries, up to 1919,
the most stable economical, cultural and political unit in Central
Europe, (known as the Hungarian Kingdom encompased it within it's
long lasting borders many nationalities, all of them protected
by the Constitution of the St. Stephen's Crown. No matter how
ultranationalistic propaganda is trying to falsify history today,
the facts are that in the "Lands of the St. Stephen's Crown"
Hungarians, Germans, Croatians, Slovaks, Serbians and Rumanians
lived and prospered side by side or fought side by side against
invaders for long centuries. Instead of being exterminated or
forced to give up their national identity, everyone of the coexisting
nationalities was able to develop its own culture, build and maintain
its own churches, its own institutions, in spite of the overlapping
language boundaries. If this wouldn't be true, there wouldn't
be any Slovaks, Germans, Rumanians or Serbians today in the Carpathian
Basin. While on the other hand it is also obvious that should
the borders of today which chopped up arbitrarily the Carpathian
Basin, be maintained for another sixty years under the intolerant
and ultranationalistic governments of Rumania, Czechoslovakia
and Yugoslavia; there won't be any Hungarians left in Transylvania,
Upper Hungary, and Southern Hungary, though the native Hungarian
population of those regions forced under foreign domination, exceeded
five million in 1920. Today, this number is already reduced to
less than four million, in spite of the fact that at the same
time the Slovak, Rumanian and Serbian population increased, according
to statistics by 23.6%.
The "Danubian Federation",
as outlined by Count Urechia, would have a population of about
40 million: 15 million Hungarians, 15 million Rumanians, 4 million
Croatians, 4 million Slovaks and about 2 million other nationlities.
Should this Federation of Autonomous Republics be joined by Austria,
the total population would number about 47 million. Taking into
consideration the total assets of the Danubian Valley in raw materials,
resources, its potentials in the fields of industry, commerce
and agriculture, it must be obvious that such a well balanced
country would become a serious power in Europe and could offer
a high living standard to every one of its citizens.
What is needed to achieve this
goal, which would benefit every nationality group in an equal
measure, bringing peace and prosperity? Nothing more than wise
and prudent planning. The ironing out of all conflicts and differences.
Most of all: a tremendous amount of patience and honest good will.
The question is quite simple:
do we have, all of us, the necessary patience and good will? Because
if we have it, all of us, Hungarians, Rumanians, Croatians, Slovaks
and everybody else, the wisdom and talent needed to plan and build
the framework, wilt be there.