THE RIGHT TO SELFDETERMINATION
SHOULD BE GRANTED
TO THE PEOPLE OF TRANSYLVANIA
United States Chapters of the Transylvanian World Federation
and Affiliated Organizations addressed to the
COMMITTEE ON WAYS AND MEANS
United State House of Representatives
on the subject of
TERMINATING THE MOSTFAVORED NATION TREATMENT
previous granted to the
SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF ROMANIA
On April 27 1981
The duly elected executives of
the U.S. Branches of the Transylvanian World Federation and Affiliated
Organizations1 with the full and undivided support of the entire
membership residing in eighteen states of the United States of
America, and composed exclusively of loyal citizens of this great
that the MostFavoredNation
status previously granted
to the government of the
Socialist Republic of Rumania be terminated or suspended for the
period of one year, during which time the government of the Socialist
Republic of Rumania
may be requested to furnish reliable
proof that the reasons for this action as listed in this document
are eliminated, and the grievances, infringements and violations
properly rectified through due governmental process.
Our request is based on the grounds
that the government of the Socialist Republic of Rumania is pursuing
an extremely brutal ultranationalistic policy while ruling over
a multinational country, and as we shall prove, it violates the
rights as well as the very existence of more than onefifth
of its total population by the use of terroristic methods against
ethnic minorities intolerable in a civilized world.
Furthermore, we shall prove that
the government of the Socialist Republic of Rumania is found in
flagrant violation of the Peace Treaties, the Helsinki Act., and
of its own constitution, and is guilty of cultural genocide, ethnocide,
and other acts against humanity.
TRANSYLVANIA is located in the
eastern most part of the Carpathian Basin. A glance at the map
will show us that this basin is completely surrounded by the Carpathian
Mountains forming a compact geographical and economical unit.
This land has been inhabited by Hungarians since 895 A.D. and
became over the centuries one of the most successful and longlasting
political and cultural units of Europe. Transylvania played an
important cultural as well as political role within this unit
for ten centuries as part of the Hungarian homeland. It was the
cradle of Hungarian art and literature. From the sixteenth century
on it became the fortress of religious freedom: the first country
on earth where man's right to pursue his own religious belief
was declared the law of the land. The Hungarian educational institutions
of Transylvania were esteemed all over Europe from the fifteenth
century on. A lively exchange of educators and students with Italian,
French, Dutch, English and German universities kept the Hungarian
cultural life of Transylvania abreast of the world's great cultural
Rumanian herdsmen began to move
from the south across the high ridges of the Carpathians into
the Hungarian Kingdom during the fourteenth century, seeking new
pastures for their sheep herds. From the seventeenth century on,
groups of Rumanian refugees fleeing from their own despotic rulers
asked permission to cross the border and they were granted asylum.
More and more refugees came and settled in different parts of
Transylvania. The Hungarian administration built villages for
them; churches and schools in which they could serve God their
own way and teach their children in their own tongue. The new
immigrants were aided in developing their own culture and as time
went on they became prosperous and multiplied in numbers.
At the end of World War I, based
on the fact that 52% of the population spoke the Rumanian language,
Transylvania was awarded to the neighboring Rumanian Kingdom and
the ordeal of the native Hungarian population began. Torn from
the Hungarian majorityblock of the Carpathian Basin by military
force, and thrown into minority status within a primitive Balkan
country, Transylvanian Hungarians had to endure unprecedented
discrimination and injustice. The Hungarianeducated Rumanian
middleclass respected the ancient Hungarian cultural institutions
of Transylvania and made no serious attempts to destroy the Hungarian
cultural heritage of the subdued people. Eventually, due to German
influence, the more nationalistic elements came into power, turning
Rumania into a satellite of Hitler.
During and after World War II
more than twohundredthousand Transylvanian Hungarians
were killed, or died in the forced labor camps of Rumania. However,
the tragedy of the native Hungarian population in Transylvania
began with the rise of Ceausescu, the new Rumanian dictator, Ceausescu
transformed the postwar Marxist regime into a nationalsocialist
(NAZI) dictatorship by declaring at the Ninth Communist Party
Congress in 1965: "Rumania is a uniform national state, its
territory now occupied by one nation, which was forced by concrete
historical events, and which resulted in the Rumanian Socialist
With this, the practice of government
policy shifted from the MarxistLeninist international socialism
to national socialism, first introduced on this globe by Adolf
Hitler, practiced later for a short time by Joseph Stalin.
Thus, the nearly fivemillion
nonRumanian inhabitants of the new Socialist Republic of
Rumania, among them three million Hungarians, were placed officially
outside the law, outside the constitution, and became foreigners,
outcasts, people without right and without a future in their own
LIST OF CRIMES
Perpetrated by the Government
Socialist Republic of
1. According to statistics 547
clergymen, 489 Hungarian educators, 49 Hungarian writers, poets,
and artists along with more than 28,600 other Hungarian intellectuals
were either executed, beaten to death, forced into suicide or
died in Rumanian prisons, mental institutions or forced labor
camps as a result of the government's policy to eliminate the
cultural leadership of the Hungarians in Transylvania and Moldavia.
. All Hungarian cultural establishments
and institutions were either torn down or confiscated and Rumanized,
including museums, archives, and libraries.
3. Hungarians were forced under
strict penalty to hand over to the Rumanian authorities every
picture, book, map, script, printed matter, private letter, artifact,
etc., that could be found in their homes and was older than twenty
years. Almost every night the Security Police performed a few
"surprise raids" in the homes of unsuspecting Hungarians.
They searched for hidden letters, books or anything else, and
in the event they were unable to find anything they would "Plant"
some old Hungarian newspaper or magazine in order to create a
pretext for further harassment. Often those who were found "guilty"
were beaten to death.
4. The use of the Hungarian language
in public places, including streets was forbidden under penalty
5. Hungarian schools were taken
over step by step and Rumanized. The presence of two Rumanian
students suffice to change the language of education from Hungarian
to Rumanian, while the presence of twentyfive Hungarian
students are needed without one single Rumanian
to keep the language of a class of Hungarians for the next six
months. Hungarian children are beaten for speaking their own language
on any school grounds, while the few remaining Hungarian teachers
are daily intimidated, arrested, tortured or sometimes beaten
- Young Hungarians are under
constant pressure, being urged to deny their Hungarian heritage,
change their name, and sever all contacts with their families.
Those who refuse to do so are being discriminated against in every
aspect of human existence, including job opportunity, housing
and food tickets. Those who refuse to change their Hungarian names
and take a new Rumanian identity cannot participate in sports.
The best example is the famous "Rumanian" gymnast, NADJA
KOMANECI, who is a Hungarian girl from Transylvania born under
the name of ANNA KEMENES, but in order to be allowed to compete
had to change her name and deny her origin. Her trainer, Bela
Karoly, is also a Hungarian, who just recently defected to the
United States due to constant harassment because of his Hungarian
7. Hungarian populations of old
Hungarian cities are being moved out of thier home by entire blocks,
and while being shipped away to distant corners of old Rumania,
their homes are given to new Rumanian settlers in order to change
the Hungarian character of the cities.
8. Hungarian churches are under
concentrated pressure. Old historical buildings are torn down
under the pretext of being "unsafe." Building permits
for new churches are being refused. Parishioners are discouraged
by veiled threats from attending church services. Church elders,
members of the presbytery are subject to lengthy interrogations
by the notorious SECURITATE, the "security police."
Clergymen who go around visiting members of their congregations
in their homes are often arrested and charged with "conspiracy
against the state." They are often beaten, tortured or driven
These crimes are not unknown the
the world. Amnesty International in London, as well as the Human
Rights Division of the United Nations pursued intensive studies
concerning the treatment of the native Hungarian population by
the Rumanian government.
The Congressional Records contain
several testimonies and statements on the subject. On July 25,
1979, the Honorable Congressman Richard T. Schulze, RepublicanPhiladelphia,
stated (Congressional Records, House, July 25, 1979): "The
Rumanian government continues to abuse the Hungarian population.
There are over 2,500,000 Hungarians who are being forced to assimilate
themselves into the Rumanian culture. They have done away with
Hungarian schools, bilingual signs, and any form of selfadministration
for these Hungarian people... The subcommittee received
very detailed, factual, well supported evidence, confirmed also
by independent Western sources, of a systematic effort to destroy
a whole network of Hungarian cultural institutions, to deprive
this ethnic group of its language traditions, and cultural identity.
I emphasize the elements of destruction in this process. It is
the closing of the schools where children can study in their mother
tongue, it is the elimination of one of Europe's oldest universities,
it is the campaign of extreme ethnic, cultural, and religious
intolerance which the Hungarians are protesting..." Congressman
Christopher J. Dodd, DemocratConnecticut, added: "The
plight of over 2,500,000 Hungarians in that country cannot be
indifferent to us. Their condition, instead of being improved,
it has worsened." Congressman Larry McDonald, DemocratGeorgia:
"Rumania shamelessly continues to suppress its national minorities..."
Congressman John H. Rousselot, Republican, California: "Reports
indicate that the ruling regime in Rumania is attempting to systematically
eliminate all facets of Hungarian culture..."
Congressman Rousselot's prediction
made in 1979 came true: Today all facets of Hungarian culture
are eliminated in Transylvania, a country which was regarded sixtyfive
years ago as the cradle, the citadel and the standard bearer of
We quote from a letter written
by an American citizen of Transylvanian descent who visited his
birthplace in August, 1980, accompanied by his wife and two children:
Ten years ago Kolozsvar was still the largest Hungarian city in
Transylvania. Today there are only a few thousand Hungarians left.
Just one single month this year, in the month of May, thirtythousand
Rumanians were brought into the city and about twentythousand
Hungarians were removed with nothing but a suitcase in their hands
to the swamps of the Danube River in order to make room for new
settlers. Many of the Hungarians we visited ten years ago, took
their own lives, due to desperation. They were simply thrown out
of their homes without compensation, without jobs. without pensions..."
"Even the cemeteries have changed. When we tried to take
flowers to the graves of those beloved, we could not find the
gravestones. All the Hungarian gravestones were removed by the
truckload, we were told. The graves of our parents and grandparents
disappeared. Not even the dead seem to have the right today in
Transylvania to rest in a grave with their Hungarian name on the
"As we traveled across Transylvania,
there was not a single place where we could use the Hungarian
Language without being exposed to crude and threatening remarks.
Those standing in line for potatoes, bread or anything else, if
heard by the food distributors whispering among themselves in
Hungarian, were chased away without a bite of food. The discrimination
against Hungarians reached such proportions that Hitler's Germany
was nothing compared to it.
"We are indeed living in
a terrible world and a terrible age," the letter concludes,
"in which there are plenty of institutions to care for 'endangered
species,' be these species birds or animals, but for endangered
humans, nobody seems to care!"
The point we want to emphasize
in connection with these abuses is the very fact they are committed
against a minority which did not migrate voluntarily into Rumania,
but was living peacefully in its own homeland as part of the majority
nation, and was thrown into minority status by an act of war,
over which it had no control whatsoever
THE VOICE OF
THE PEOPLE WITHIN
In November 1950, the Socialist
Federation of Hungarian Workers in Rumania, sent a MEMORANDUM
to the United Nations, the governments of the Socialist Countries,
and the Madrid Conference. We are quoting from that
"The experiences of six decades
convinced the coexisting nationalities in Transylvania that their
national existence and human rights are neither protected nor
ensured within the framework of the Rumanian State. Therefore,
in order that these nationalities may safeguard their ethnic heritage,
and at the same time be enabled to live and work peacefully side
by side, we implore the member state of the United Nations, the
signatory states of the European Security Accords, and most of
all the countries of the Socialist Camp: TO ESTABLISH THE INDEPENDENT
SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF TRANSYLVANIA UNDER THE PROTECTIVE MANDATE
OF THE UNITED NATIONS.
Since it is neither within the
power of this committee, nor within the present reach of the government
of the United States to solve this tragic situation one way or
another, we respectfully suggest that this committee, in order
to show the oppressed peoples of Transylvania that the United
States of America is still the Champion of Freedom which does
not condone oppression and the persecution of minorities,
TERMINATE THE PREFERRED
NATION STATUS OF
THE SOCIALIST REPUBLIC
with the understanding that this
status shall not be granted again until the Rumanian government
can prove to a mixed commission visiting Transylvania that the
abominable persecution of the Hungarian and other national minorities
has ceased, and the following conditions are met:
1. The Hungarian language is recognized
in Transylvania as second official language.
2. The Hungarian Autonomous Region
is reestablished under strictly Hungarian administration.
3. The old Hungarian educational
institutions are reestablished.
4. The confiscated museums, libraries
and archives are returned to the reestablished Hungarian
cultural and church related organizations.
5. Old Hungarian cemeteries are
returned under the care of the Hungarian churches.
6. Those Hungarians who were deported
from their native towns or villages, or left their homes under
duress, are allowed to return. Rumanians who were resettled
into Hungarian towns and villages with the purpose of diluting
the Hungarian character of the area or filling the better paying
jobs at the expense of the native Hungarian population, are returned
to their own provinces.
7. All signs and markers in Hungarian
populated cities, towns and villages are again bilingual.
8. Equal opportunity is established
in every field of human existence.
9. All harassments and intimidations
in relation to nationality are terminated.
10. The sixteenth century shrine
in Torda, the very building in which the elected representatives
of the three Transylvanian nations declared for the first time
in this world, man's inalienable right to the free exercise of
his religious belief, is restored again to show the human race
that men of different tongues and different beliefs, if motivated
by good will and understanding can bring our world forward in
one accord and in the right direction!
We sincerely feel that it is our
moral obligation to insist that governments desiring friendly
relations with us, abide by the same rules of ethics as we do.
We are certain that the government of the Socialist Republic of
Rumania as well as the people of that country would greatly benefit
from a more harmonious and therefore more productive co~nstence
of all nationalities which call that country their homeland.
Albert Wass de Czege Dr. John
President General Secretary
(Mrs.) Ilona Boissenin
Update the Trade
In Accordance with
the Provisions of the
Immigration as the only solution
for the protection of oppressed national minorities is not enough,
since five minion people, one fourth of the total population of
today's Rumania, can not be emmigrated out of their native land
where they had their culture well established centuries before
the Rumanians moved in and took over. There must be other means,
and there are other means by which a totalitarian government based
on a minority party's rule can be forced to respect and abide
by international agreements and by the very charter properly defined
Article 27 of the 1966 United
Nations Covenant of Civil and Political Rights states:
"IN THOSE STATES IN WHICH
ETHNIC, RELIGIOUS OR LINGUISTIC
MINORITIES EXIST PERSONS BELONGING
TO SUCH MINORITIES SHALL NOT BE DENIED THE RIGHT TO ENJOY THEIR
OWN CULTURE, TO PROFESS AND PRACTICE THEIR OWN RELrGION, OR TO
USE THEIR OWN LANGUAGE."
Rumania ratified the above covenant
but refuses to apply it to Hungarian, German, Jewish, Bulgarian.
Serbian and Gypsy native minorities, which together make up almost
one fourth of the country's total population.
The United Nations Ad Hoc Committee
on Genocide in 1948 accepted the following definition as one of
the ways by which the crime of CULTURAL GENOCIDE may be committed:
"SYSTEMATIC DESTRUCTION OF
HISTORICAL OR RELIGIOUS MONUMENTS OR THEIR DIVERSION TO ALIEN
USES, DESTRUCTION OR DISPERSION OF HISTORICAL. ARTISTIC OR RELIGIOUS
VALUES AND OBJECTS..." (U.N. Doc. E/447)
According to the above definition
Rumania is guilty of Cultural Genocide by confiscating and destroying
Hungarian museums, libraries and archives, Hungarian monuments
and churches as well as old Hungarian cemeteries. But most of
all by forcing the Hungarian youth of Transylvania to learn and
profess to a falsified history which is abasing and derogatory
to their Hungarian consciousness, and places them not only into
an inferior status but declares them "alien vagrants"
in their own native land.
CAN THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED
STATES OF AMERICA ENDORSE CULTURAL GENOCIDE?
CAN THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED
STATES ENDORSE TERROR,
DISCRIMINATION, DEPORTATION, TORTURE
AND MURDER COMMITTED DAILY AGAINST DEFENSELESS MINORITIES BY THE
CEAUSESCU GOVERNMENT IN RUMANIA?
IF NOT MAKE IT KNOWN TO THE OPPRESSOR
AS WELL AS THE OPPRESSED!
Do Not Renew Preferred
To Ceausescu's Terror Regime!