Typewriters Declared "Deadly Weapons"
The Transylvanian Quarterly
In the first week of April, Dictator
Ceausescu declared a new law, which stands unique in the history
of mankind. Every typewriter in the country in the possession
of private individuals had to be taken to the local police station,
where it was recorded and "fingerprinted". "Loyal
citizens" received permits for the possession and use of
their typewriters, while to those who are regarded by the police
as "enemies of the regime", permit was denied and their
typewriters confiscated without any recompense. As the Orlando
Sentinel expressed it in its April 15, 1983 issue, "Rumania
is banning possession or use of typewriters by citizens...who
pose a "danger to public order or state security".
The first known "victim"
of this new law in the city of Kolozsvar (ClujNapoca) was
an 84 year old widow, Mrs. Ilona Bartha, whose husband, once a
free lance journalist, left behind a big, old fashioned typewriter
stored in the attic of the old Bartha home, now shared by six
families. Mrs. Bartha, who has only one room left to her use in
her old home, walked over to the police station and reported her
husband's old typewriter, collecting dust in the attic. "You
must bring it in", the SECURITATE officer in charge told
her. "I can't," she replied, "it is much too heavy.
Send somebody to get it. You can have it for good."
One week later the police came
to the house on the Monostori Street, took the typewriter and
arrested Mrs. Bartha as the "illegal owner of an unregistered
typewriter". She was sentenced to three months in jail.
Amnesty International Reports on Rumania
The Transylvanian Quarterly
Amnesty International, a worldwide
organization, honored with the 1977 Nobel Peace Prize, has consultative
status with the U.N., and the Council of Europe. In a 45 page
report recently published on Rumania, Amnesty International discloses
the deplorable situation of the Hungarian minority in that country.
"At present there are no
Hungarian language universities in Rumania. Three old Hungarian
universities, Kolozsvar, Marosvasarhely and Nagyszeben have only
some Hungarian language facilities left. Nevertheless, even here
discrimination operates. In 1976 and 1977, 1,206 students enrolled
at the Kolozsvar (Cluj Napoca) University. Of these 269
were members of the Hungarian minority, but only 20 students were
allowed to attend lectures in the Hungarian language."
"In the Csangoregion
there were 72 Hungarian language schools in 1958. Today there
are none. Ethnologists predict that the Hungarian minority is
threatened with cultural and linguistic extinction, as a result
of the Rumanian government's discriminatory policies."
"A number of persons who
have criticized official policies have been detained. Some have
been maltreated. Some have died under mysterious circumstances."
Some of the cases listed by Amnesty
International are those of Zoltan Zsufka; college professor, Jen6
Sziksza; teacher, Lajos Kuthy; Teacher, T. Sim;, teacher, Karoly
Kiraly; representative of the Hungarian minority, Janos Torok,
Bela Niszly and many others.
Transylvanian Delegation Invited to Berlin
Dated May 5, 1980, several invitations
were sent out from the Bundeshaus in Bonn, Germany, to leading
Transylvanian Hungarians, among them to Mr. Istvan Zolcsak, associate
editor of the Transylvanian Quarterly, and Mr. Karoly Kiraly,
silenced spokesman of the Hungarian minority in Rumania. The delegation
will represent the oppressed minorities in Rumania at the European
Conference For Human Rights and SelfDetermination.
It was Dr. Felix Ermacora, chairman
of the Hearing Committee, the venerable champion of Human Rights,
who personally insisted on the presence of Mr. Kiraly. It is doubtful,
however, that the Rumanian government will grant him permission
to participate at the conference.
Members of the Transylvanian World
Federation all over the world are waiting to see Mr. Ceausescu's
reaction to this significant step in the right direction taken
by the European Conference For Human Rights and SelfDetermination.
The finding of this conference will be presented later in the
fall to the signatory powers of the Helsinki Agreement, in Madrid.
The Story of Borika Bodo
The Transylvanian Quarterly
It happened on a warm, sunny afternoon,
June 28,1979 in Transylvania, today a province of the Socialist
Republic of Rumania. Three young Hungarian girls from the Hungarian
village of Szek were singing old Hungarian folk songs while working
in the cornfields. Though the Rumanian supervisor of the governmentowned
"people's farm" admonished the girls not to sing Hungarian
songs because they were in the land of the Rumanian people, the
three teenagers continued singing in Hungarian.
In late afternoon a police vehicle
arrived at the scene, picked up the girls and took them to the
police station in Kolozs (today call Colocna) where they were
stripped, beaten and raped. Next morning two of the tortured girls
were released, but the parents of the third girl, Borika Bodo,
age 16, were told by police Sergeant Marariu that their daughter
had "behaved rather poorly" and had to be transferred
to Kolozsvar (Cluj) in order to stand trial. However, when the
parents inquired from the Kolozsvtr authorities, nobody seemed
to know anything about the girl. She had simply disappeared. As
time went on, the parents were told to keep their mouths shut,
and foreign organizations inquiring about the case were advised
that no person by the name of Borika Bod6 had ever existed.
The appalling, but by Rumanian
standards not unusual, story of Borika Bod6 was first published
in September 1979 by Amnesty International in England, and in
October the same year the Transylvanian quarterly reported the
case. In March 1980 two French journalists, Jean Boutier and Pierre
Bertrand, working with the International Red Cross, visited the
village of Szek with the purpose of looking into the disappearance
of Borika Bodo. They were told by the Rumanian village authorities
that no family by the name of Bodo has ever existed there. When
trying to ask the minister of the Hungarian Calvinist Church,
the two journalists found the doors of the parsonage locked and
all the curtains drawn on the windows. When they went to the police
station in Kolozsvar looking for Sergeant Morariu, the sergeant
in charge told them that his name was Muresan and that no police
sergeant by the name of Morariu had ever served there. Every trail
had been carefully and systematically covered up.
More than a year had passed, when
in September1980 a young Hungarian refugee, having escaped from
Rumania, arrived in Italy. According to his testimony he had spent
three years in the Kolozsvar dungeon as a political dissident
and was transferred from there the spring of 1980 to a "mental
clinic," where he was subjected to different experiments.
He recalled seeing there a girl by the name of "Bori,"
who, together with other young girls, was used for the sexual
pleasures of the staff. Sometime in May, the young refugee recalled,
Bori had committed suicide by an overdose of drugs and was buried
in the cemetery behind the institution.
Since "Bori" and "Borika
are the same name, it was assumed that the missing Borika Bod6
was the one who had put an end to her life afready destroyed by
her captors. The Transylvanian Quarterly reported her death in
January, 1981, and in the minds of those who try to keep a close
watch over Rumanianbeleaguered Transylvania, the sad case
Then suddenly, two years later,
in January 1983 news came to the Transylvanian World Federation
that Borika Bodo is alive, at least in a physical sense. She is
"working" in the kitchen of a mental institution somewhere
at the edge of the illfamed Dobruja swamps, where most of
the still existing forced labor camps are located. She was seen
and talked to by one of the young Hungarians who were arrested
in November 1982 in Nagyvarad (Oradea). He was charged with publishing
the underground newspaper ELLENPONTOK (Counterpoints) and sending
through "secret channels" a memorandum to the United
Nations in the name of the Hungarian Worker's Federation of Transylvania,
listing their grievances and their demands against the Rumanian
As these massarrests were
widely publicized in Austrian, German, French, English and American
newspapers, the Ceausescu government, in order to appease public
opinion in the West from whence they are expecting more financial
aid, released several persons whose role in the crimes against
the communist state" were minimal, and who were not too badly
beaten up or tortured. Among those released was a young pharmacist
by the name of Sandor Molnar, who succeeded soon in escaping from
Rumania into Turkey.
Mr. Molnar testified under oath
in a written affidavit that while he was an inmate at the Bardagoci
Mental Research Institute, where political prisoners are held,
tortured and experimented upon, he was taken by the guards several
times in December 1982 into the kitchen to peel potatoes or wash
dishes. There he met a Hungarian girl who claimed her name was
Borika Bodo. She lived in the Institute, Molnar testified, doing
kitchen work. She was a quiet, docile girl, walking around like
a robot, without any expression on her thin, pale face. She knew
her name, but could not remember anything else.
Could this Borika Bod6 be the
same girl who was happily singing Hungarian folk songs in the
cornfields of Szek? We will probably never know, though the name
is not the kind you run into every day. Any attempt to investigate
is greatly hampered by the fact that Rumanian communist authorities
flatly deny the existence of a "Bardogoci Mental Research
Institute," and Dobruja, as such, is forbidden territory
to foreign visitors.
But whoever that poor girl may
be, we pray to God that the curse which lies heavily today over
the land of Transylvania may be lifted soon, so that girls who
feel like singing under God's blue sky may do so freely. While
those who are hellbent on murder, torture, destruction and
genocide will be swept away by the broom of Divine Justice.
New Victims of AntiHungarian Terror
On November 6, 1982, Geza Sz6cs,
Hungarian poet, was arrested by the SECURITATE in Tirgu Mures
Marosvasarhely, for sending a "complaint" to
the United Nations. He was so severely beaten that a hospital
statement dated November 30 still listed him as "critical".
On November 7, 1982, the well
known actor, Attila Kertesz, was arrested in Oradea Nagyvarad.
He was accused of holding secret meetings in his apartment and
taking part in the publication of the underground paper ELLENPONTOK
(Counterpoints). On the same day Attila AraKovacs was also
arrested under the same pretext.
Both men were seen for the last
time on the day of their arrest.
On November 8, 1982, Professor
Karoly Toth and his wife were arrested in Cluj (Kolozsvar) and
accused of taking part in the publication of the ELLENPONTOK,
and being responsible for an article dealing with the situation
in Poland. They were both beaten and tortured and released into
"house arrest" on November 15. Since then nobody is
permitted to talk to them or enter their home, which is under
ELLENPONTOK (Counterpoints) is
the name of the underground newspaper published "somewhere
in Transylvania" by the Young Hungarian Socialist Workers'
Coalition. The first issue appeared in December 1981 and the ninth
issue in December 1982. The two last issues contained a memorandum
addressed to the Madrid Conference on Human Rights and also a
draft dealing with suggested solutions of the minority problems
Civil engineer Geza Koos Szant6
of Sepsiszentgyorgy, Puskas Str. 32 A II. 11, was arrested together
with his wife on May 28,1982 and accused of organizing a dance
group among the Csango Hungarians of the Moldova province. They
were both hung by their wrists and beaten for hours. The next
day they were released with the threat that if they ever get involved
again in any Hungarian cultural action, they will get more beatings.
On December 2, 1982 the young
couple was arrested again and since that day no one has seen them.
In April 1982 metal worker Dezso
Demeter, age 22, Vasile Alexandri Street 17 in Szekelyudvarhely
was arrested by the SECURITATE and beaten until he was willing
to sign a "confession" implicating several of his Hungarian
coworkers with antigovernment activities. On May 13
the young Hungarian worker hung himself. The Reverend Istvan Hegyi
of the Hungarian Reformed Church was ordered "not to make
any speeches at the funeral". Nevertheless, on November 6,
1982, Rev. Hegyi was arrested and accused of "speaking to
a group of demonstrators at Demeter's grave on memorial day, November
1. His whereabouts is still not known.
On September 15,1982 Dr. Janos
Vincze age 41, professor on the medical and pharmaceutical faculty
of the University of Cluj (Kolozsvar) was arrested and accused
of "bribery in University admissions." He was convicted
on November 14, 1982, to four years of forced labor.
His real "crime" was
that he insisted on registering deserving Hungarian students into
the medical school against government policy. Dr. Vincze's name
is well known in American medical circles by his many English
language publications in the field of medical science.
Reverend Father Janos Ecsy, Father
superior of the Franciscan Monks in Transylvania was for several
years the organizer of the famous Csiksomly6 pilgrimage. Under
his authority the yearly event became a unique Hungarian folk
festival. His popularity became a thorn in the eyes of the Rumanian
authorities, and he was warned several times to keep the pilgrimage
on a strictly religious level with no Hungarian cultural overtones
On April 17, 1982, Father Ecsy
became the victim of a hit~andrun accident. More than 3,000
peopIe and about 400 priests attended his funeral. On November
11,1982, Trajan Puscas, truckdriver for the government operated
lumber mill was crushed by a rock slide and confessed on his death
bed that he was the one who ran down Father Ecsy with his truck
at the order of Lt. Andrei Tarnaveanu from the district office
of the SECURITATE.
Father Ecsy's predecessor, Father
Benedek, died in 1978 from the tortures he suffered during his
fourteen years of imprisonment.
The last inhabitants of Hostat
(Kolozsvar) were evacuated on November 23, 1982. Twentysix
Hungarian families, remnants of the famous vegetable growers,
who settled there in 1411 to supply the fort of Kolozsvar (Cluj)
with food, were removed by the Rumanian authorities from their
homes. They were loaded into trucks and dumped outside the city,
on the Felek ridge, without food, without shelter, in freezing
weather. When they asked where should they go, there were told
to "go to hell, that's where all Hungarians belong."
Nearby Hungarian villages took them in temporarily to save them
from frost and starvation. Their future is one of the many unsolved
problems with which the Hungarians of Transylvania are faced.
In 1957, according to the census
figures, there were 187 Hungarian families still living in Hostat.
With most of their vegetable lands expropriated to accomodate
the government's housing project and with no other income available,
these families engaged themselves in the most intensive gardening
effort the world has probably ever seen in their small backyards.
It was called a "miraclett by several specialists and an
outstanding German magazine, the Gartenwissenschaft published
a fourpage picture report on the "great achievement
of the Hostat gardeners in the 1961 July issue.
The aim of the government's housing
project was to build modern apartment buildings for the
20,000 Rumanians from old Rumania
to be settled into the city of Kolozsvar (Cluj) in order to change
the ethnic ratio of this ancient Hungarian city. After the planned
buildings were finished and the new "first class citizens"
brought in, it turned out that the newly established industries
could accomodate more Rumanians if the Hungarians would be moved
out. Thus, in 1976 the Hostat section of the city was condemned
as "unsafe," and the Hungarian population, rooted for
five and a half centuries into the rich garden soil, was moved
out forcibly, street by street in order to yield space to imported
Rumanians. On November 23, 1982 the last leg of this well planned
government project took place, ending one of the most heroic,
and at the same time, one of the most tragic epics of our age:
THE HOSTAT SAGA.
Our Reports Reviewed in Europe
The Transylvanian Quarterly
The EUROPA ETHNICA, a Quarterly
for Problems of Nationalities and Organ of the "International
Institute of Nationality Rights and Regionalism "in Vienna,
Austria, published in its 38th Volume, No.4,1981 the following
review of our work:
"The Transylvanian World
Federation publishes the Transylvanian Quarterly and in a number
of this quarterly we find very interesting articles about the
Transylvanian Magyars, but in the issue of July 1981 also a statement
of this organization and its affiliated groups addressed to the
Committee on Ways and Means of the United States House of representatives
on the subject of ternnnating the previously granted most favored
national treatment to the Socialist Republic of Rumania by the
U.S.A. The Statement underlines the fact that the Rumanian Government
adopts an extremely brutal ultranationalistic policy in
a multinational country, this especially against the Hungarians.
During the World War II and after, more than 200,000 Transylvanian
Hungarians were killed or died in the forced labor camps in Rumania.
This was growing more after the rise of Ceausescu, the new Rumanian
dictator who transformed the postwar Marxist regime into
a nationalsocialist (NAZI) dictatorship by declaring at
the Ninth Communist Party Congress in 1965: Rumania is an uniform
national State, its territory occupied by one nation which was
formed by concrete historical events, and which resulted in the
Rumanian Socialist Nation. Then follows a long list of crimes
perpetrated by the Rumanian Government against the Magyar ethnic
minority in Rumania. The U.S. House of Representatives is begged
to terminate the treatment of Rumania under the rule of the clause
of the most favored nation on the grounds of extinguishing the
Legalized Wage Discrimination in Rumania
The Transyluanian Quarterly
The TWF News Agency reports: The
new wagelaw introduced in this country by dictator Ceausescu
abolished the hourly wages and wages by piece work. Instead, a
meritsystem was introduced, giving full authority to the
"overseers" who are appointed by the local communist
parties to every work unit. It is their job to decide, on the
basis of "cooperation and political behavior," who gets
full wages at the end of the week and who gets 50% or less.
At the end of the second week
of December 1983 in the Kolozsvar (Cluj) shoe factory, the 24
Hungarian workers still employed there received only half of their
usual pay because they were talking in Hungarian among themselves
during the lunch break, which is regarded as very "unpatriotic
The Trans ylvanian Quarterly
"Exterminate the Hungarians"
Even before the illfamed
speech of Dictator Ceausescu on May the 10th, 1983, in which he
declared all the ethnic groups and especially the Hungarians "slaves"
of the Rumanian masterrace, his regime launched a concentrated
attack against the native Hungarian population of Transylvania.
It was first reported by the Vienna, Austria newspaper DER KURIER,
April 29, 1983: "We have received placards and posters sent
to us from Transylvania, with the text: "Rumanian Brothers,
Let us clean up our land from the Hungarian parasites in order
that we alone be the owners of this beautiful land! The Hungarians
are our enemies! Squash them, exterminate them, anywhere you can
Through May and June several newspapers
all over the world reported this new antiHungarian action
of the Ceausescu government. These placards and posters are printed
by the government's printing shop in Bucharest and sent to administrative
agents all over Transylvania with the order to display them in
railroad stations, bus terminals, railroad cars, buses, post offices
and other public places.
Anyone who is caught removing
such posters receives, besides the usual beatings, jail sentences
up to three years.
"If One Hungarian
In the village of Noszoly, Central
Transylvania, two brothers by the name of Janos and Ferenc Tokes,
age 16 and 14, were arrested on May 18,1981, and taken to the
police station in Kekes, where they were both kept for two days
and savagely beaten. The charge against the two Hungarian boys
"malicious act against the Rumanian state." The Tokes
brothers, whose names were arbitrarily changed by the Rumanian
authorities to the more Rumaniansounding Tochesiu, protested
when their distorted names were called from the roll of the local
communist youth organization. Since this happened during the May
10th parade, commemorating the "union of all Rumanians,"
it was regarded as a demonstration against Rumanian unity.
The two boys were taken home by
their widowed mother and her sister in a cart pulled by the two
women, because neither of them was able to walk due to the beatings
received from the police. Janos Tokes, 16, was unconscious for
five days, he lost half of his teeth, four of his fingers were
broken and in midJuly he was still uanble to speak clearly.
When the mother asked for medical attention on behalf of her son,
it was denied by the county administrator with the words: "If
one Hungarian pig dies, we have one less to get rid of!"
Amnesty International Reports
Hungarian "political prisoners"
in Rumania are kept in prisons which are way below the minimal
requirements set forth by the United Nations. These are mostly
clergymen, churchelders, educators and factory workers who
dared to protest against discrimination. They are forced to work
under abominable conditions twelve hours a day, including Sunday.
Those who collapse are transferred into socalled "mental
clinics," and used for experimental purposes.
Amnesty International was also
informed that members of the boxing team in the DINAMO SPORTCLUB,
an organization of the Security Police, are commissioned with
the beating of these political prisoners as part of their training
program. The Rumanian Boxing Team, representing Rumania in the
Olympics, is composed mainly of members of this organization.
Hungarians in Transylvania Forced into Extreme Misery
December 14, 1982
Transyluanian World Federation
While in neighboring Hungary people
are preparing for Christmas and the usual feast that goes with
it, letters reaching the West from Transylvania as well as reports
of recent visitors render a bleak picture of the situation in
this Rumanian occupied Hungarian land.
Most of the food is available
only on coupons, and in very limited quantities, Government offices
issuing those coupons use the "merit system":
Persons with Rumanian names are
given one "merit" for the name alone. Another merit
is added for a "letter of recommendation" from the local
communist party office, and a third for a letter of approval from
the office of the workforce, to which the person requesting
the coupons is assigned.
Three "merits" entitle
a person to coupons for 1 kg. (2.2 pounds) of meat, 3kg. bread
and 1/8 kg. of lard or sunflower oil per week. An average Rumanian
family with two working members and two children and no
demerits will have enough food on the table and not go
hungry. Hungarians, on the other hand, if they don't change their
names, can have only two "merits" to begin with, and
even those only if they "behave properly." This means
that they do not offend anybody with the "provocative use"
of their mother tongue and do not get involved in any kind of
activities their Rumanian rulers frown upon. Thus, even the most
humble Hungarian is handicapped at the very beginning. One wrong
word spoken forfeits the "merits1' for an entire month. Another
handicap is those retired members of the family who do not receive
any retirement pay because forty years ago they happened to be
"serving the wrong party": the Hungarian government,
the Hungarian army, Hungarian institutions or they were independent
"capitalists" owning their own business. For example:
a woman, no matter how old now, if she served as a cook in a Hungarian
upper or middle class household, can not claim retirement benefits
from the "socialist treasury." Not that those benefits
would make an old person independent and free from poverty. We
read in one of the letters:
"My widowed mother retired
four years ago from the local coop. Her retirement pay is
87 lei each month. Exactly the price of one kilogram of meat.
A retiree who worked for 36 years on the fields from daybreak
to sundown receives one kilogram (two pounds) of meat as a month's
compensation. I must add, that meat can be purchased only once
a week perhaps if you get up at four o'clock in the morning to
be close to the head of the line when the shop opens at eight."
Another letter was written by
a grandmother who is lucky to live in Budapest, Hungary, while
the rest of her family is in Transylvania. In November 1982 she
went to visit her children and grandchildren in Nagyvarad (Oradea),
under Rumanian occupation. She carried a suitcase of edibles:
ham, bacon, sugar, butter, salami, etc. On the border the Rumanian
custom officials confiscated everything. Even presents, like sweaters
and shoes for the children.
"First time in my life I
had them all together," she writes, "my son and his
wife, my daughter and her husband, and my nine grandchildren whom
I've never seen. I was so happy! But my happiness was thwarted
by the terrible poverty I have found there and by the Rumanian
officials who robbed me from all the presents which would have
made their lives easier for a few days."
"Way back during the war
I suffered hard times, too. Lack of food and so on. But it was
never like this! Everybody was hungry all the time and there was
no way to get anything. The shops were closed most of the time,
and even when they were open what we were able to buy on coupons
to feed 14 people was not enough for seven. At dinner time the
children had to be fed, and what was left we divided amoung ourselves."
"Once," the letter goes
on, I went with my daughter to get some potatoes. The word was
out in the neighbourhood that a whole truckload came in, and coupons
were not needed. When we got there the line was already about
two hundred meters long on the street. After two hours of waiting
in the cold rain there were only about twenty people ahead of
us. My daughter told me before we went there never to open my
mouth because I can not speak Rumanian. So I kept quiet. But then
I just had to go somewhere and whispered to my daughter where
the restrooms might be? The woman behind us began to yell in Rumanian,
then others were yelling, too, and the policeman at the door came
over and told us to get out of there and go home, we are foreigners,
we don't belong...'
Newest Statement of the Transylvanian Underground
The illegally printed organ of
the Transylvania underground named ELLENPONTOK (Counterpoints)
thought to have been eradicated by the Rumanian Political Police
(Securitate) after a chain of arrests, beatings and tortures at
the beginning of this year, suddenly reappeared again with the
"Those in the outside world
who have preserved the sensitivity of their conscience watched
with disbelief and helpless consternation all that happened to
us, Transylvanian Hungarians, during the last decades. Their disbelief
and anxiety was not just for our sake alone, but for the future
of the Rumanian people also.
"We Hungarians were forced
to reach the conclusion, which the outer world is only now beginning
to realize, namely that the existing Rumanian regime can not be
accepted anymore as partner in an attempt to reach any kind of
decent corrective resolution toward a politically sober cooperation
between government and people. The deteriorated morality of this
government makes it unfit for any kind of orderly operation and
its powerlogic is motivated by factors which makes it dangerous
toward its own people as well as toward the survival of minorities
under its rule.
"We find that a new consensus
has arisen within the entire Transylvanian Hungarian nation. Regardless
of ideology, regardless of differences in class or in functions
of each individual within the system, the immediate danger and
the feeling of mutual responsibility has united all of us in the
desire for a radical change in our situation. We will have to
try again, as so many times during our history, to create a new
world out of nothing. To restore our equality with the rest of
our fellowmen in this world, and try to achieve that common good,
which lies in the effective denial and rejection of the system
established today above and against us.
"It was indeed a positive
experience for us to learn that the supportive attention and the
justified concern of the people of the Hungarian People's Republic,
and presumably of those in other Socialist States are on our side
in this struggle, within the limits of diplomacy, of course, and
within the framework of the presentday political structures.
"In our judgment this international
concern and sympathy toward our cause c~n in no way be regarded
as an "intervention" into the internal affairs of our
country or as an "infringement" of Rumanian sovereignity
Infringement of sovereignity can come to exist only where a government
carries out responsibilities entrusted to it by the people it
rules. Not only that the Rumanian government has never done anything
for us, Transylvanian Hungarians, but it exerts an unprecedented
terror upon the Rumanian population also."
Signed: "Editors of the Ellenpontok."
The Transylvanian Quarterly