Increasing Terror in Rumania
Amnesty International London
The Amnesty International reports
from London: An increasing number of dissidents are being presently
arrested in Rumania, and held in prisons without trial or locked
up in mental hospitals. Though statistics recently published by
the Rumanian government show a slight decrease in the number of
those imprisoned throughout the country, the reason for this decrease
can be found in the mass release of thieves and other petty criminals
from the overcrowded Rumanian jails.
During the months of December
1980 and January 1981 an increased number of dissidents, mostly
Hungarians, were arrested under the pretexts of "homosexuality"
and "idle lifestyle". The latter definition is being
frequently used against Hungarian workers who are first fired
from their jobs under some pretext, then arrested for "loafing".
Leaders of ethnic cultural institutions,
church elders as well as other members of diehard congregations,
and all those who dare to criticize oppressive government practices
are exposed to intensive persecution.
Answer to Those Who Maintain that Rumania Furnished
Proof of her AntiRussian Attitude by Refusing to Send Troops
into Czechoslovakia in 1968
The Transylvanian Quarterly
The reason for not taking part
in the Russian invasion of Czechoslovakia was the very fact that
the Rumanian government was afraid of a similar revolt within
its own borders spearheaded by the Hungarians in Transylvania.
Rumanian troops concentrated along the Hungarian border as well
as in the central and eastern parts of Transylvania. The same
drastic measures of intimidation were used against the Transylvanian
Hungarians as in 1956, during the Hungarian Uprising, which was
squelched by the Russians with Rumanian aid.
The Following Acts and/or Intentions of the Rumanian
Socialist Republic, both in Transylvania and Moldavia, have been
The Transylvanian Quarterly
1. The Rumanian Socialist Republic
wants to annihilate 20 to 25 percent of the Hungarians of the
world by a fixed date. The Hungarians and Germans in Moldavia,
who settled there well before the Rumanians and composed a 42
percent majority among the more than twenty nationalities living
there, have been almost completely annihilated by the Rumanian
2. In Moldavia, all of the schools
have been confiscated from the approximately 250,000 Hungarians
who live there today;
3. Hungarian schools in Transylvania
are being gradually closed according to planned procedures;
4. The Autonomous Hungarian Territory
has been abolished:
5. In Rumania, Hungarian churches
are razed on the pretext of "urbanization," and Rumanian
churches are built to ensure the Rumanian character of the cities:
6. Epitaphs in Hungarian graveyards
7. In the death camps of the Danube
70 to 75 percent of the prisoners
are Hungarians even though the number of Hungarians presently
in Great Rumania amounts to only 15 to 17 percent of the population:
8. The leaders of the Hungarian
nationalities are being annihilated by police or subjected to
psychological terror. (According to Amnesty International, several
have been barbarously murdered.);
9. A total of 1.5 million Rumanians
have settled in Transylvania since the end of World War II, and
the settlement continues to this day;
10. Connections between Hungary
and Transylvania have been made increasingly difficult;
11. Hungarians are limited to
one travel permit every two years if they wish to visit relatives
12. Hungarian tourists or tourists
of other nationalities visiting relatives may not board with Hungarian
families, and those Hungarians who talk to foreign tourists are
branded, persecuted, threatened and harrassed;
13. The 500,000 Hungarians in
Szatmarnemeti, Nagykaroly, Nagyvarad, Arad and Temesvar are excluded
from the recently signed HungarianRumanian smallborder
traffic treaty in order to safeguard the interests of Rumanization;
14. The works of Hungarian writers
are censored by Rumanians or Hungarian traitors:
15. Road and street signs are
written in Rumanian only;
16. Transylvanian Hungarian books
are published in Bucharest in Rumanian surroundings, effectively
isolating Hungarian writers and editors from a Hungarian environment;
17. All Hungarian universities
have been closed in Rumania;
18. It is forbidden to speak Hungarian
in factories and offices;
19. In Rumania not a single Hungarian
is a military officer or pilot, and only Rumanians may be members
of the police force (militia);
20. The Communist Party rejects
Hungarians who are true to their nationality;
21. In the interests of rumanization,
the program of the Rumanian Communist Party regarding nationality
affairs is identical to that of the "National Socialist Iron
Guard" or the Hungariankiller Maniu Guard;
22. Doctors may not speak Hungarian;
23. Children in school are taught
A. Hungarians and their ancestors
were animalistic, raw meateating barbarians who threatened
the lives of the peaceful Rumanians,
B. Transylvania was never Hungarian,
C. Szekler Hungarians were Thraks
of obscure ancestry who were taught to write and cook by the Rumanians,
D.Transylvania, the cradle of
"Romanismus," was one of the "three Rumanian"
lands during the last 2,000 years, and
E. Janos Hunyadi and Gyorgy D6zsa
24. The Rumanian Government has
declared that the destiny of Hungarians in Rumania, since they
are merely Hungarianspeaking Rumanians, is an "internal"
25. Hungarian Jews were stripped
of all of their property and compelled to leave their country.
A similar fate awaits the Germans of Rumania,
26. The Rumanian State plans to
completely eliminate all Hungarian kindergartens and elementary
schools within twenty years;
27. The Rumanian State (on an
unlimited budget) floods the world with hundreds of thousands
of books and encyclopedias which falsify the history of the Hungarians
28. All the intentions of the
Rumanian Socialist Republic are governed by the nationalistic
and reactionary theory known as the DacoRoman Theory;
29. The Rumanian Socialist Republic
proclaims its frontiers from the "Dnyester as far as the
Tisza", based on the fact that Transylvania was conquered
and looted by the Romans for 1.5 centuries.
An end to the enumerated complaints
had been requested in the past in various memorandums not only
by the Transylvanian World Federation, but by a faithful communist
Karoly Kiraly, in Rumania, a nonparty man, Sandor Zolcsak
and other Hungarian, German and Jewish nationality leaders.
The Rumanian Socialist Republic
is obliged by the Peace Treaties of Trianon and Paris to respect
the national and human rights of the nationalities who are the
original inhabitants of that territory.
Job Discrimination and Discrimination on the Job
Wherever new industrial plants
are established by the Rumanian government, Hungarians are hired
only when there are not enough Rumanian applicants. Those who
are allowed to work are constantly harassed by their Rumanian
superiors. Hungarians are called "bozgore" meaning "homeless
stranger" or "vagabond"', and are forbidden to
use their mother tongue. Hungarian children, though native to
the land, are exposed to the same humiliation and persecution
in the schools.
Baptist Church in Bujac Confiscated
President Nicolae Ceausescu announced
during a special telecast in Romania, that all premises built
without government approval will either be confiscated or demolished.
On March 28, the Baptist Church
in Bujac., Romania was confiscated and two other churches in the
town of Oradea are now awaiting the same fate.
Due to the present oil crisis
which weighs heavily on the Romanian economy, President Ceausescu
also introduced a new rule concerning travel on Sunday by private
transportation. In the future, travel by car will be permitted
only on alternate Sundays depending upon the odd and even registration
numbers of the cars. This hits very hard at pastors who have to
travel great distances to minister to their congregation. Several
pastors have requested the government to provide a special exemption
for them, saying they would be willing to surrender two other
days of nontravel in exchange for being allowed to travel
on Sundays. The Romanian government answered with a loud "No."
New Attempt to Strangulate the Churches
The number of divinity students
authorized to prepare for the ministry is strictly limited today
in Rumania by an ever decreasing quota. In 1980 sixtyfive
Hungarian protestant students applied for permission to enroll
in the Theology, but only seven received authorization from Bucharest.
Hungarian Cities Closed to Hungarians
Into such ancient Hungarian cultural
centers as Kolozsvar (Cluj), Marosvasarhely (Tirgu Mures), Nagyvarad
(Oradea) and Szatmar (Satumare) only Rumanians are allowed to
settle today, Hungarians not. Those native Hungarians on the other
hand who are still living there, are being gradually evacuated
street by street and moved across the Carpathians into oldRumania.
The Kiraly Case
The Transylvanian Quarterly
On September 10, 1977, Karoly
Kiraly, a native Hungarian of Transylvania and member of the Central
Committee of the Rumanian Communist Party, wrote an historic letter
to Ilie Verde, chairman of that Central Committee. He accused
the Ceausescu government of breach of the Constitution, and acts
committed against the basic principles of the Marxist doctrine
in their treatment of the Hungarian minority. Kiraly also charged
the Rumanian government with cultural genocide, intimidation,
brutality, as well as political, economical and social discrimination
against the native Hungarian population of Transylvania.
Within 24 hours after the public
release of that letter in one of the Hungarian party publications
in Bucharest, Mr. Kiraly, his wife and children, were arrested,
disciplined and deported into another part of the country. The
editor responsible for the publication of the letter was also
arrested. On January 24, 1978, The Times, The Guardian, The Frankfurter
Allgemeine Zeitung, and on January 25 the Le Monde, February 1
The New York Times carried the story, focusing worldwide
attention on the Kiraly case. A short time later the complete
English, French and German translations of the Kiraly letter was
published here and abroad also.
Those familiar with the situation
in Rumania agree that the publicity might have saved Kiraly's
life. Ceausescu, in an attempt to show his tolerance to the Western
World, from where substantial aid is flowing these days into Rumania,
did not retaliate. Kiraly was not beaten to death like the high
school teachers Szikszai and Kuthy or thrown into prison like
hundreds of other less outstanding dissenters. After all, Kiraly
was one of the "founding fathers" of the Rumanian Communist
Party. He was simply "banished from public life", as
a disciplinary measure, and "relocated for his own safety"
into a distant place where "he could freely move about but
was not allowed to leave the city limits, temporarily." The
location had to be kept secret", inquirers were told.
For quite a long time nobody knew
for certain what had really happened to the courageous Hungarian
who dared to raise his voice against the brutal and oppressive
Nazilike minority policies of "Fuhrer" Ceausescu.
Nevertheless, the Kiralyletter became an important cornerstone
in the evaluation of Rumania's internal affairs. Not only throughout
the Western Hemisphere, but within the Socialist camp as well.
The complaint concerning the total disregard of minority rights
came this time from a leading Communist, thus furnishing concrete
proof that protests, appeals and demonstrations carried out during
recent years in Washington, and elsewhere, by Transylvanian exile
organizations in America, were not motivated by bigoted propaganda
but were truly deploring an intolerable situation, a genocide
in progress, and rightfully pleading with the government of the
United States to intervene on behalf of the threemillion
Hungarians of Transylvania before it would be too late.
After more than a year of complete
silence, a message has reached the Free World again concerning
the fate of Mr. Kiraly and his family. The message came directly
from Transylvania, in March 1979, through a visiting tourist whose
name cannot be released for well known reasons. This tourist,
a highly reliable person living in the West and visiting relatives
in Transylvania, had the opportunity to meet facetoface
with Karoly Kiraly and his best friend, Sandor Zolcsak. He was
told that the house in which Mr. Kiraly and his family are forced
to live is being exposed night after night to nuclear radiation.
Two months later, after complaining
of strange spells, a visiting Hungarian doctor by the name of
Hadnagy, an expert in radiation, examined the entire Kiraly family
and detected distinct symptoms of radiation. Four unexposed films
inside the house also showed signs of radiation.
Knowing well that in Rumania he
cannot officially obtain a fair diagnosis, Mr. Kiraly petitioned
the Rumanian authorities in May to be allowed to visit another
Socialist country, preferably Hungary or Czechoslovakia, for treatment.
Permission was denied. According to Hungarian medical opinions,
the Rumanian government was trying to drag out the time until
radiation as such cannot be indisputably proven, though the damage
caused by radiation is fatal.
It was observed by reliable witnesses,
among them medical experts with hidden instruments in their pockets,
that night after night some kind of armored truck pulled up across
from the building where Kiraly and his family were kept, and parked
there five to six hours. Driving along the lonely street, between
the Kiraly house and the parked vehicle, the instruments showed
The newest reports indicate that
from July on, the Zolcsak family is also being exposed to the
same radiation. The two men, Kiraly and Zolcsak, see no other
hope for themselves and their families than to be subjected as
soon as possible to an unbiased investigation by some sort of
international committee of medical experts. Last week in July
they sent again a message to Hungary, and an international committee
of PolishHungarianCzechoslovak medical experts asked
permission to enter the country and examine the two families.
Rumanian authorities denied the permission.
The last report received by the
Transylvanian World Federation in midSeptember stated that
Mr. Kiraly, his wife and his children were taken to a hospital
for treatment, location unknown. The Zolcsak family disappeared
at the same time.
We must seriously wonder: just
how long will the world tolerate outrageous crimes of such proportions
New Assault Against the Relics of the Hungarian Past
During the months of July and
August 1981 the Rumanian Communist government sent several "pioneer
units"' recruited from among high school and college students
into the purely Hungarian regions of Transylvania, known as the
Szekelyland, to seek out the old mountaincemeteries and
burn every "kopjafa" they could find. The "kopjafa"
(meaning javelinshaft) was in the olden days the grave marker
of brave men. They were handcarved and handpainted in special
and individual ways, telling the familyline and the deeds
accomplished by the dead, very similar to the Indian totempoles.
The Transylvanian Quarterly
Another Hungarian Clergyman "Exterminated"
TWF reports from Des (Dej) Transylvania:
On June 8, 1980 from Reverend Istvan Andras, minister of the Calvinist
Hungarian Church of Des, was arrested in his home, taken to police
headquarters and beaten to death. The official police report stated
that Reverend Andras refused to answer questions concerning an
alleged plot to "overthrow the government" and when
left alone for a few minutes he threw himself out of a third story
window and then beat his head against the pavement until he died.
Reverend Andras was instrumental
in organizing within his church a youth group for the purpose
of singing old Hungarian folk songs and reciting poetry. Since
his activity was in conflict with the aims of the Ceausescu regime
to stamp out every trace of Hungarian culture in this ancient
Hungarian province, Reverend Istvan Andras had to be silenced
His wife and twelve year old son
were put into a mental institution for "observation".
According to recently released
worldstatistics, the highest suicide rate comes from Rumania.
Though there is no mention made of the province leading in this
tragic race, we can rightfully assume that the figures released
include mostly Hungarians from Transylvania who are unable to
cope with the sadistic treatment of Rumanian authorities and can't
see any future in their ancient homeland taken over by a cruel
Low Interest Loan to Rumania
The National Enquirer reported
on March 18, 1980: "While high interest rates are burning
millions of Americans, U.S. bureaucrats are giving away millions
each year in low interest loans to communist countries."
Among those countries receiving
recently such low interest loans, the Enquirer lists Rumania with
2.5 million at 8 percent.
The article quotes Congressman
Richard Schulze, (R. Pa.), saying: "How can we give these
Communists taxpayers' money at 8 percent, while Americans can
not afford to buy a home at 15 percent interest?"
Russia's Executioner in 1956
After the brutal squelching of
the shortlived free Hungarian Republic in November 1956,
Rumania eagerly joined Russia in "rounding up" freedomloving
Hungarians by the thousands, and executing them.
Prime minister Imre Nagy, head
of the free Hungarian government of October 1956, as well as the
young and heroic general Paul Maleter, leader of the Hungarian
Freedom Fighters, were both executed in Rumania, by Rumanians,
without trial, in order to please their Russian masters. In return
for this loyal and devoted service the Soviet Union agreed to
pull out its troops from Rumania, since there was no need to police
this most trustworthy member of the communist block any longer.
From that time on Rumania enjoys
"special privileges" in Moscow, including the privilege
to 'sass'' its Kremlin masters for the benefit of the gullible
West and serve as a spy while doing so.
For the good of worldcommunism,
Reports from Transylvania
The Transylvanian Quarterly
Szamosujvar Gherla, January,
1982: Tibor Negrucz, former Hungarian merchant of Armenian descent,
now garbage worker, was beaten and jailed for thirty days without
a hearing for singing Hungarian folk songs while at work and refusing
to quit when so ordered by the police.
Nagysarmas Sarmas, January,
1982: The official census of the Rumanian government shows 1,211
Hungarians in this Transylvanian town. However the roster of the
local Hungarian Calvinist Church alone lists 2,300 active members
of the congregation, with street and house numbers.
Medgyes Medias, December
1981: Peter Bugos and Laszlo Selmeci, workers in the city's shoe
factory were overheard by their Rumanian supervisor talking Hungarian
among themselves. They lost their jobs immediately and were put
to work by the police with a street cleaning crew from the nearby
state prison. There was no official hearing granted.
Marosvasarhely Tirgu Mures,
February 1982: Seventh grade teacher, Ms. Tirnaveanu, in the Papiu
Ilarion liceum formerly the Hungarian Calvinist school
tells her pupils that they are living now in Great Rumania,
therefore they are not allowed to speak any other language but
Rumanian. Children caught talking Hungarian on the playground
during recess, receive from her 25 licks with a heavy oak stick.
Some of the Individual Cases Investigated and Reported
by the Transylvanian World Federation Between 19761979
JENO SZIKSZAI, professor in BrassoBrasov,
was arrested in the spring of 1977 for collecting signatures against
the closing down of Hungarian schools. He was severely beaten
and tortured by the security police under the cornmand of Lt.
Dan Nicolescu. He committed "suicide".
LAJOS KUTHY, also professor in
BrassoBrasov, was beaten and tortured for collecting signatures,
and was found shot in a forest.
JAN0S SZABO protested against
the harassment of the Hungarian minority in Rumania, and sent
a letter to exiled dissident writer Paul Goma in the spring of
1977. He was arrested, beaten and tortured and condemned to forced
labor. (Amnesty International records.)
BELA NISZLY, elderly lawyer, gave
judicial assistance to Hungarians who denounced the discriminatory
measures of the authorities. He was interned in the Dr. Petru
Groza psychiatric hospital, his house confiscated and given to
JAN0S TOROK, textile technician
in Kolozsvar (Cluj) publicly criticized the electorial procedures
and stated that deputies elected "in advance" by the
government would not represent the interests of the workers. He
was beaten, tortured and interned in the same psychiatric hospital
as Niszly, where he was treated for several months with massive
doses of Plegomazin and Amital.
SIMA, school teacher in Fogaras
was exposed to the same treatment in the same hospital for teaching
in his history class that Transylvania was formerly part of Hungary.
TIVADAR BUSA, artist, organized
a group of protesters in Lugos. He was arrested in 1978 and disappeared.
FRANCIS HOLZ, signed an open letter
in favor of human rights, was beaten, tortured, and locked up
in the psychiatric hospital. No report about him since 1979.
SFERDIAN of Arad is a Baptist
of Hungarian origin. In April 1978 he requested authorization
to leave Rumania. He was refused, arrested, beaten and tortured
for several months.
Four Hundred Year Old Hungarian School Confiscated
The Carpathian Observer reports:
"The 400th anniversary of one of the first schools in Transylvania,
called today the MathematicsPhysics Lycee No. 3 in ClujNapoca,
has been recently celebrated. Addressing the attendance at the
festivity, the headmistress of the lycee recalled the centuryold
records of the cultural establishment where numerous personalities
of Transylvania's social, cultural and scientific life had been
educated." This report in the "Tribunea Romaniei",
a biweekly paper published in Bucharest for RumanianAmericans
fails to mention that the school was established in 1579 by the
Hungarian Stephen Bathory, Governor of Transylvania and later
King of Poland. In 1948 the Rumanians nationalized and gradually
Rumanized this originally Hungarian Catholic High School. Plans
for the anniversary celebrations included invitation of former
students, most of them Hungarian, now living abroad, but this
was not permitted by Rumanian authorities. So this truly Hungarian
cultural event in the historic Hungarian cultural capital of Transylvania,
Kolozsvar (Cluj) was turned into a Rumanian one, just as many
other Hungarian historic events and achievements in the past 30
We must add to this that the two
other ancient Hungarian educational centers of Kolozsvar, the
Calvinist "Reformed Collegium", and "Unitarian
Collegium" were nationalized and Rumanized the same way,
with no credit given to the two Hungarian churches for past achievements.
"My Crime: I Spoke Hungarian!"
The Transylvanian Quarterly
Under this title a striking postal
card appeared this year in France, published by the Groupement
pour les Droits des Minorites, rue Honore Chevalier 12, Paris.
The picture on the card shows a lonely little boy, head bent,
facing a bare, dismal brick wall with a large sign on his back
"I spoke Hungarian!"
The picture was published in several
newspapers telling the free world the unbelieveably sad story
that there are more than 600,000 Hungarian school children today,
forced into the newly established ultranationalistic Rumanian
school system in Transylvania, who are strictly forbidden the
use of their native tongue, even on the playground, during recess.
Any youngster caught uttering just a few whispered words in Hungarian
to one of his friends or relatives is severly punished. The punishment
for such seditious behavior varies from standing in the corner
for hours with a sign on the back, sometimes holding heavy cement
blocks in their hands, to twentyfive strokes with a heavy
stick which draws blood and leaves serious bruises.
Condemned to Starvation
The Transylvanian Quarterly
To several observers it seems
that the Ceausescu government of Rumania is introducing a new
method to rid Transylvania from its native Hungarian population.
Beside deportations into forced labor camps, hospitals where the
unfortunate inmates are being used for experimental purposes or
simple acts of murder perpetrated by the hated Securitate, the
Hungarians are facing now a new terror: hunger.
Travelers returning from Rumania
verify the news that while the entire country suffers from certain
food shortages due to the mismanagement of the Ceausescu regime,
authorities in charge of food distribution keep the needed supplies
away from Hungarian inhabited regions.
Hungarian villagers, whose farms
were "nationalized"" are not even allowed to use
their own backyard ovens for baking their own bread. Once a week
they have to stand in long lines in front of the police station
waiting for a certain truck which brings their bread from distant
factories. The bread they are forced to buy is not only poor quality
but is handed out to them in such small quantities that it hardly
lasts for two or three days. Since they are not allowed to raise
their own beef, pork or even poultry, the Hungarian diet in Transylvania
consists mostly of greens gathered from the hillside and potatoes
and cabbages grown in their small gardens. With winter coming
and the food supply cut shorter and shorter by government agencies,
the death toll among the elderly and the young will certainly
rise. Which is exactly what Dictator Ceausescu is trying to accomplish
in his quest of exterminating the Hungarian population.