Situation Tense in Transylvania
The Transylvanian Quarterly
TWF. Helsinki: Reliable sources
touring Transylvania in September report that compulsory
military training has been extended to all female Rumanians of
certain age groups. Male and female militia has been armed with
combat weapons. Military concentrations could be observed along
the Hungarian border.
Any kind of book, printed matter
in possessions of visitors, brought in by visitors from Hungary
is being confiscated. Hungarians, male and female, called into
compulsory military training are being put into laborbrigades,
and used during the training period as construction workers,
building roads and bridges, without pay, of course, as
a "patriotic duty" for the "unreliable elements
of the country."
The Transylvanian Problem Gains Worldwide Attention
The Transylvanian Quarterly
Professor Felix Ermacora, wellknown
champion of human and national rights, spoke in San Francisco,
Los Angeles, Miami, Caracas and Sao Paulo during the month of
May on the rights of national minorities in general, and the plight
of the Transylvanian Hungarians in particular. Dr. Ermacora,
professor of international law at the University of Vienna, member
of the Austrian parliament, and chaiman of the International
Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, was appointed
last year by the United National Committee of Human Rights to
report on the grievances of national minorities. and work out
with a group of experts, the guidelines in dealing with these
grievances. In our January issue of the Transylvanian Quarterly
we published some of the proposals drafted by Dr. Ermacora and
his associates which were accepted by the International Convention.
based on Resolution 17, C, III of the General Assembly of the
Since the largest and most abused
national minority group in Europe is the native Hungarian population
of Transylvania, suffering extreme hardship under the hostile
government of the Socialist Republic of Rumania, Dr. Ermacora
is focusing special attention on this problem. After thorough
evaluation of all the facts. the "Transylvanian Case"
will be presented to the United Nations.
The Trans ylvanian Quarterly
Dictator Ceausescu"s new
offensive against the 3 million strong native Hungarian population
of Transylvania brought forth a strong reaction in the West during
the last few months. For the lack of space we are listing here
only the more important articles dealing with the oppression of
the minorities in Rumania.
Nov.20, 1982, THE ECONOMIST: Transylvania,
Echo in the Conch.
Dec. 6, 1982, FRANKFURTER ALLGEMEINE
ZEITUNG: The fate of Hungarian poet in Transylvania uncertain.
Dec.11, 1982, DIE WELT: Transylvanians
worry about their culture.
Dec.11, 1982 DIE PRESSE, Wien,
Austria: Ceausescu"s Second Class Subjects, the Hungarians.
Dec.19, 1982, THE TRANSYLVANIAN
OBSERVER, Australia: The eyes of the world are on Transylvania!
Dec.24, 1982, THE WASHINGTON TIMES:
In Rumanian the angels must sing underground.
Jan. 2, 1983, THE ATLANTA JOURNAL:
Life getting harder in Rumanian. Stalinist regime is most repressive
in Soviet block (Robert D. Kaplan).
Jan. 3,1983, THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE
MONITOR: US versus Rumania (Eric Bourne).
Jan. 13, 1983, NEUE ZURICHER
ZEITUNG: The Hungarian Minority in Rumania the former Citadel
of the West.
Jan. 14, 1983, LE NOUVEL OBSERVATE
UR: When Ceausescu hunts for Hungarians..." (Antoine de Gerando).
Jan. 20,1983, THE WASHINGTON TIMES:
Erasing a people's history.
Jan.23, 1983, VALEURS ACTUELLES,
Paris: Tension in Transylvania (Gilles Mermoz).
Feb. 28,1983, THE WALL STREET
JOURNAL: Hungarians restive in the East Bloc (Victoria Pope).
March 8.1983, THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE
MONITOR: Education tax was only one of the many Rumanian human
rights abuses but it was the last straw (Eric Bourne).
Playwright Ionesco Calls for Boycott
The Transylvanian Quarterly
The Carpathian Observer reports:
Rumanianborn playwright Eugene lonesco called on the world's
artists and intellectuals to boycott Rumania in protest of that
government's treatment of minorities.
"Communist Rumania is becoming
the center of repression, hypocrisy and persecution in Europe",
lonesco said in a statement on behalf of the Committee of Intellectuals
for Rights in Europe (CIEL) of which he is the chairman.
The wellknown Rumanian playwright,
living in Paris called on "all intellectuals, scientists,
artists and creators to boycott Rumania's official institutions,
and not to visit this country as long as repression and the disappearances
(of dissidents) continue.
We hope that the Academic Community
of the United States will heed lonesco's appeal, and will stay
away from the 1980 World Historical Congress planned in Bucharest,
in spite of the red carpet treatment offered by the Ceausescu
The year 1980 was declared by
Mr. Ceausescu as the "twothousandth anniversary of
Rumanian statehood between the Dnieper and the Tisza Rivers.''
Everybody knows that the forefathers of the Rumanians, the Vlachs,
migrated from the Balkan peninsula into their present location
during the 12th, 13th, 14th and 15th centuries, and Rumania as
such became an independent country only onehundred years
This new Rumanian megalomania
reminds us of the ''Herrenrassetheory" of Hitler, and
seems to be the main source of Rumania's ultrachauvinistic
treatment of the national minorities.
The truth is that Hungarians and
Germans established culture and civilization in Transylvania long
before the first Vlach migrants appeared on the slopes of the
Horror in Transylvania!
(Excerpts from Tom Kennedy's article,
published in the Calgary Sun, Canada, September 8, 1981.)
Today, this former part of Hungary
is a wretched corner of poverty, ignorance, spiritual degradation
and human tribulations on a scale hard to contemplate outside
the realm of Third World despotism.
The rural population, mostly ethnic
Hungarians, living under Rumanian rule, are without the basic
foodstuffs, and everything is fast going from bad to worse,
There has been no flour, sugar,
meat or coffee available since last spring. Bread is obtained
only seldom and in lumps of about a pound of gritty, gooey matter
of uncertain coloring.
Each night, we pray to the Almighty
that we wouldn't have to wakeup in the morning, a wizened old
woman of 75 years said, She wept as she accepted bread and fruits
brought from Hungary, less than 100 miles away, where the markets
are full of summer produce.
Meanwhile, Rumanian stateowned
trucks, freight trains and ships are hauling practically all that
grew this year abroad to be sold for hard currency. Ironically,
this year Transylvania had a bumper crop. But most of the
grain and practically all the livestock had been pledged at rock
bottom prices in advance to the Arab countries in exchange for
crude oil, and to Western Europe for money.
Rumania is the personal kingdom
of president Nicholae Ceausescu who rules this tragic land of
immense natural beauty and resources with an iron fist. The rest
of the presidential family occupies all the high offices of state
and party machinery.
Flanked by his wife, the vicepresident
and head of the national women's organization, officially known
as the Great Mother, Ceausescu recently opened the world university
games in Bucharest, the Rumanian capital.
Enthroned in the style of the
Roman emperors atop the manytiered stadium, the divine couple
got as much television coverage as the scores of athletes parading
below. Books, pamphlets, speeches, ostensibly written by Ceausescu
himself, together with largerthanlifesize posters,
abound in shops and offices.
The cult of personality obviously
encouraged and enjoyed by the president, rivals that lavished
on his idol, Joseph Stalin, in the postwaryears.
Will the United States Endorse Cultural Genocide in
May 7 1976
The New York Times
Reprinted in the Transylvanian Quarterly
"Two hundred years ago the
United States of America was founded on strong moral principles.
The fashionable view today holds that those principles have largely
eroded since 1776. We HungarianAmericans do not adhere to
The United States of America is
still the champion of human rights and fundamental freedoms around
the globe. It leads the fight for these high ideals in the United
Nations. It is the hope of oppressed minorities all over the world.
There is now an opportunity to
take a further step in the spirit of this noble tradition. Rumania's
dictator, Nicholae Ceausescu, is pursuing an increasingly brazen
program amounting to CULTURAL GENOCIDE against that country's
Hungarian, German and other minorities. The six major elements
of this program are:
1. Elimination of minority educational
Taking full advantage of the state
monopoly of education, the Rumanian government eliminates, merges
and reorganizes schools at will. As a result, from 1956 to 1974
the number of Hungarian elementary schools dropped from 1515 to
776. (Today, as of September1981, there are only 182 Hungarian
elementary schools left in Transylvania, while all Hungarian Middle
Schools, High Schools and Colleges were liquidated. Editor.)
2. Suppression of minority languages.
In addition to manipulating the
educational system, the Rumanian government employs other methods
to suppress the use of minority languages. Rumanian is the exclusive
language used at every level of government bureaucracy. This policy
encourages chauvinism even in strictly private social situations.
Members of minorities often have to put up with derision and threats
for using their mother tongue. (Since the publication of this
article in the New York Times we have proof of S7 cases when Hungarians
were beaten to death by the Rumanian police for the use of the
Hungarian language. Those standing in line for hours in front
of a bakery or other supply house are sent home empty handed if
they dare to utter one single whispered word in Hungarian. Editor.)
3 Falsification of historical
data and population statistics.
The Rumanian Communist Party produces
and disseminates its own version of history. Their semifictional
version of Rumanian history dismisses the significance of the
indigenous Hungarian culture which predates the emergence of the
first Rumanian state by three centuries.
Through the notorious Communist
method of manipulating statistics, the population of minority
groups is constantly falsified in government records. (Mr Jonel
Margineanu, former supervisor to a censusunit in Transylvania
prior to 1977 testified that his written orders were to register
every household as Rumanian, unless otherwise demanded by the
subject and to hand over a list of those who insisted on being
registered as Hungarians to the chiefs of police.
See. Documented Facts and
Figures on Transylvania, Danubian Press 1977 page 57 Editor.)
4. Confiscation of cultural archives.
This despicable act of the Rumanian
government constitutes in itself the crime of cultural genocide.
The State appropriated all historic documents, relics, manuscripts,
maps, photos, diaries, posters, engravings, imprints and other
material in the possession of church archives, private organizations
or individuals. Uncompensated confiscation of this kind was reported
by the Swiss daily Neue Zuricher Zeitung on February 1 and 2,
1975, page 6: "The material was loaded onto trucks and carted
away. The Rumanian government has openly embarked on an escalated
campaign against the Reformed (Calvinist) Church and the Hungarian
(Since then we have proof that
most of the confiscated material was burned, including the historical
archives of the Trans ylvanian Museum at Kolozsvar (ClujNapoca).
We also have proof of nine instances when books in Hungarian language
published before 1946 were found in Hungarian homes and the owners
of those books were beaten, tortured and sent to prison. Editor.)
5. Obstructing contacts with relatives
DecreeLaw 225/1975 prohibits
the accomodation of nonRumanian citizens in private homes
in Rumania. Visiting relatives from Hungary or America must be
lodged in stateappointed hotels, where they are under police control
(and their belongings are examined and their conversations taped.
6. Dissolution of ethnic communities.
As in all Communist States, the
Rumanian government has complete control over the labor market.
Rumania utilizes this control to break up homogeneous ethnic groups.
University and vocational school graduates of Hungarian origin
are routinely assigned jobs outside their own communities. Rumanians
are encouraged to replace them through offers of attractive income
and housing opportunities in Hungarian communities. (Since this
article appeared in the New York Times, more than 130,000 Hungarians
were evacuated by force from their towns or cornmunities, moved
into OldRumania, and replaced by Rumanians.)
Multiple violations of international law.
The above measures violate not
only international standards of human rights, but the Constitution
of Rumania itself. Minority populations must bear these outrages
in addition to the usual intolerance and terror which affects
life of every citizen of Communist states regardless of ethnic
All the the above abuses continue
despite Rumania's ratification of the 1966 U.N. Convenant of Civil
and Political Rights. Article 27 of the covenant reads as follows
"In those States in which
ethnic, religious or linguistic minorities exist, persons belonging
to such minorities shall not be denied the right in community
with the other members of their group to profess and practice
their own religion or to use their own language."
What can the United States do?
As a reward for her "independence"
from Moscow (7) Rumania was granted mostfavorednation
status by Congress. That decision overlooked the fact that this
"independence" is not founded on decency and a healthy
respect for human liberty. The fact is that Rumania today is guilty
of the most blatant internal oppression of all the Soviet satellites.
The only condition upon which
mostfavorednation status was granted was the requirement
of free emigration. This may solve the problem of a handful of
people, but the 2.5 million Hungarians want to live, work and
prosper in a land which they have inhabited for over one thousand
We urge the American Government
to exert pressure on Rumania in any possible manner to conform
to enlightened standards in its treatment of minorities.
We urge the American public to
show the same sympathy and concern toward these people as it has
toward so many other victims of political and cultural persecution
over the last two hundred years."
Since the above article appeared
in the New York Times on May 7, 1976, the situation in Transylvania
deteriorated to unbearable proportions.
There is no doubt about the fact
that a well planned and brutally executed GENOCIDE is taking place
in that country.
We, Americans of TransylvanianHungarian
descent, urge our Government and the good people of this great
country to do something before it is too late!
The "Rumanization" of the Hungarian University
School of Marosvasarhely (TirguMures)
The Transylvanian Quarterly
Owing to a previous decision of
the victorious allies after World War II, Transylvania and its
principal city, Kolozsvar (Cluj) was reannexed by Rumania.
In 1945 the Ferene Jozsef University, which until that time had
been functioning in Kolozsvar, was phased out. Its faculty of
medicine was transferred to Marosvasarhely, while its other faculties
remained in Kolozsvar under the name of Bolyai University (named
for a famous 18th century Hungarian mathematician) .
From that new beginning a faculty
of medicine was compelled to establish itself in a small provincial
town of 30,000 inhabitants with facilities to provide only a few
hospital beds for the training of physicians. Looking back on
the last 35 years, it can be seen that all the initial difficulties
were overcome. The Maosvasarhely School of Medicine
emerged as the intellectual center of the Hungarian ethnic group,
a position which is being increasingly contested by the ruling
Rumanian majority even though the Hungarians are the second largest
nationality in the country
Beginning in 1945 the Medical
School afforded training to an average of 1,000 students annually.
During the following 15 years (up to 1960) about 3,000 of them
graduated as physicians and chemists (pharmacologists), most of
them Hungarian nationals. The number of Rumanianspeaking
students never exceeded 2530 per annum during those years.
In the initial fiveyear period most of the professors were
those who had come over from the faculty at Kolozsvar, but owing
to the growing impetus of "rumanization" most of them
gradually left for the Hungarian motherland. One who stayed on
was the illustrious earnosethroat specialist, Professor
Vince Vendeg who died there a few years ago.
When the "Hungarian Autonomous
Province" was setup in the early fifties, the divorce
from the alma mater in Kolozsvar was completed and the institution
renamed "University School of Medicine and Pharmacology".
It was subdivided into four sections: 1) General Medicine; 2)
Pediatrics; 3) Dentistry and Stomatology; 4) Pharmacology.
During those years, the Dean,
all of the professors, lecturers and assistants were Hungarian,
except for two Rumanians, both of whom were bilingual, RumanianHungarian.
The Communist bias of the educational style had been pretty emphatic
throughout that period, but the use of the Hungarian language
was not impeded in the slightest. Moreover, the vast majority
of Hungarian graduate physicians and pharmacists were provided
jobs in Hungarian inhabited Transylvania and its periphery, in
the districts of Szatmar, Nagyvarad, Arad, Nagybanya, etc.
This 'undisturbed' ',if not idyllic,
state of affairs did come to an abrupt end with the Hungarian
national uprising of 1956. The Communist Party and Government
of Rumania were evidently apprehensive lest the revolutionary
fire in Hungary would spread to Transylvania, particularly to
Kolozsvar and Marosvasarhely. Hence a campaign of suppression
(antiHungarian in nature) was set in motion with the approval
and support of the Soviet authorities. Great care was taken not
to give the campaign an ideological character; it was directed
against everything conveyed by the Hungarian language folks
songs, theatrical productions, novels, but primarily at education.
That was the time it became evident they were attempting to eradicate
the Hungarian language by using the slogan, "Rumanian is
our mother tongue". "Rumanization" became one of
the principal drives of the Party, which succeeded in harnessing
to it quite a few professors and students by bribing them or threatening
coercion. At the same time came the demise of the University School's
Hungarian Folkloristic Art Ensemble which for many years had been
doing a valuable cultural work. Its leader, a linguistic teacher
named Korody, was first badly defamed and subsequently jailed
for several years.
Once the University Medical School's
Hungarian cultural life had been stifled, the rest was dealt with
quickly. During the summer holidays of 1962 an assistant professor
of the Rumanian Faculty of Medicine of the University of Kolozsvar,
Dr. Ion Pop D. Popa, was appointed first to deputy head surgeon
of Marosvar Surgical Clinic and six weeks later to lecturing professor.
Later he was appointed Assistant Dean of the University School
as well as its Party secretary. This meant that he was given practically
unlimited powers. During the subsequent term undergraduates turned
up from the "old kingdom" (the socalled "regat")
part of the country beyond the Carpathians, who spoke no other
language but Rumanian. Although there were only 1520 of
these students, all practical work was thereafter to be conducted
in Rumanian. All theoretical subjects were taught in both languages
and the Hungarian students were compelled to attend both the Hungarian
and Rumanian courses. To avoid such terrible waste of time, most
Hungarian students volunteered for the Rumanian language courses.
Marosvasarhely (TirguMures) soon acquired the reputation
of favoring Rumanian aspirants by giving them easy entrance examinations.
The result of all those trickeries just stated was that by this
time up to 70% of the students at that School of Medicine originally
meant to be the Hungarian section of the former Ferenc Jozsef
Universitv of Kolozsvar were of Rumanian nationality.
The basic principle of "rumanization"
in cases such as the Faculty of Medicine at Marosvasarhely is
that the figurehead at the top, in this case the dean, must be
a Hungarian (Professor Janos Laszlo at the time of this writing),
while his assistant is also the Party Secretary as well as Rumanian.
At present the Assistant Dean is Emilian Bancu whose brotherinlaw
Dorm Niculescu holdes the chair of urology. The chair of internal
medicine, founded by the Hungarian professor of international
fame, Professor Miskolczy, has been inherited by the Rumanian
Octavian Popovici. Radiology, which has been most successfully
run for 35 years by Professor Krebs, who is due to retire this
year, has already been handed over to Dumitru Stanciu, and so
on it goes...
This is the way the Hungarian
past, present and future is being eradicated from the once famous
Hungarian Medical Faculty of Kolozsvar and thereafter Marosvasarhely.
Victor de Stankovich
If YOU were born today to Hungarian Parents in the
ancient Hungarian Homeland of Transylvania:
The Transylvanian Quarterly
1. The name chosen for you by
your parents would be arbitrarily changed by the registering authorities
to suit the Ceausescupolicy of Rumanization. Should your
parents try to endorse you with the simple name of "Janos'",
your official papers would declare you "Juon", but if
they had the courage to endow you with one of the old historic
names like "Arpad" or "Csaba", they would
be subjected to endless harassment by the local authorities, and
you would end up with the official name of "Trajan"
2. Your parents would hardly dare
to have you bapitzed in a church. They would either abandon the
idea of baptism completely in fear of reprisals, like loss of
job, harassment by the police, or they would ask a minister to
visit their home one day and perform the ritual in secret.
3. After reaching the age of three,
your parents would be obliged by law to take you to the compulsory
statecontrolled nursery where you would hear nothing but
Rumanian spoken, and where you are drilled to answer these two
principal questions in Rumanian: why are you? and what are you?
To the first question you have to state your name in Rumanian,
like "Juon Sabau" instead of Szab6 Janos, while the
answer to the second question is: "I am a good little Rumanian!'"
Your adherence to these indoctrinations will be checked several
times during your early years in your home also, by visiting authorities.
In case your parents are loyal
patriotic Hungarians, and they teach you at home your own Hungarian
cultural heritage, you may easily blurt out one day: "I am
a good little Hungarian!" (We know of several cases.) Your
parents will be ordered to report to the dreaded SECURITATE, where
they will be scolded, beaten and warned that if your "defiant
and unpatriotic behaviour" does not change shortly, you will
be taken away from them and placed in a statecontrolled
4. After nursery and kindergarten
your parents may have the choice to enroll you into a Hungarianlanguage
grade school if there is still one left in your immediate neighborhood.
According to law, 25 Hungarian pupils are needed to justify the
maintenance of a Hungarianlanguage class. However, the presence
of one Rumanian child suffices to change the language of instruction
from Hungarian to Rumanian. Due to the constant transfer of Rumanian
families into the Hungarian inhabited areas, the use of the Hungarian
language in the grade schools is diminishing rapidly.
Nevertheless, if you were lucky
enough to enter one of the few remaining grade schools where the
language of instruction is still Hungarian, you will pay a high
price for this privilege after you finish the sixth grade. Rumanianlanguage
schools will not take you in, no matter how well you speak, read
and write the Rumanian language. Since there are only a very few
schools left in Hungarian inhabited Transylvania still operating
on the higher levels in the Hungarian language, your chance for
an education ends here. You are condemned for the rest of your
life to lowpaid manual labor. Should you be lucky to live
in a larger Hungarian city where you may still find a Hungarian
high school, you can graduate there, but it will not do you too
much good. You will not be able to enter college, and your diploma
from the Hungarianlanguage high school will not qualify
you for jobs usually requiring no more than high school degree.
The Department of Labor of the Rumanian State will assign you
to manual labor of the lowest kind, and there is no way you can
ever change that. In Rumania you do not apply for jobs. The jobs
are assigned to you officially.
5. If your parents enrolled you
into a Rumanian language school, you may choose any profession
you like, and for which you show talent. You can end up with a
doctor's degree, in spite of being born Hungarian. But as soon
as you finish school you will be assigned to a job far removed
from home, somewhere in old Rumania, in a cornpletely Rumanian
environment. You will have there a oneroom housing unit
allocated to you, and after you get married there you will have
the privilege to lease nearby a gardenplot for your family's
6. Should you end up as a factory
worker you will be officially retired from the job at the age
of fortyfive. You immediately lose your right to home and
garden. While your Rumanian counterpart is assigned to another
job, you as a Hungarian, are faced with a tragedy. You have no
job, and no retirement pay. You have no future, unless you are
able to prove to the authorities that you gave up your Hungarian
heritage, you became a "good Rumanian", your children
don't speak the Hungarian language anymore, and you are an ardent
supporter of "Leader Ceausescu"s ideology" of Rumanian
superiority from the Black Sea to the Tisza River.
THIS IS A FACT: EVERY YEAR SEVERAL
HUNDRED HUNGARIANS ESCAPE THROUGH SUICIDE, BECAUSE THEY HAVE NO
FUTURE IN THEIR OWN HOMELAND!